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Enabling Technologies for Management of Distributed Computing Infrastructures
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Computing infrastructures offer remote access to computing power that can be employed, e.g., to solve complex mathematical problems or to host computational services that need to be online and accessible at all times. From the perspective of the infrastructure provider, large amounts of distributed and often heterogeneous computer resources need to be united into a coherent platform that is then made accessible to and usable by potential users. Grid computing and cloud computing are two paradigms that can be used to form such unified computational infrastructures.

Resources from several independent infrastructure providers can be joined to form large-scale decentralized infrastructures. The primary advantage of doing this is that it increases the scale of the available resources, making it possible to address more complex problems or to run a greater number of services on the infrastructures. In addition, there are advantages in terms of factors such as fault-tolerance and geographical dispersion. Such multi-domain infrastructures require sophisticated management processes to mitigate the complications of executing computations and services across resources from different administrative domains.

This thesis contributes to the development of management processes for distributed infrastructures that are designed to support multi-domain environments. It describes investigations into how fundamental management processes such as scheduling and accounting are affected by the barriers imposed by multi-domain deployments, which include technical heterogeneity, decentralized and (domain-wise) self-centric decision making, and a lack of information on the state and availability of remote resources.

Four enabling technologies or approaches are explored and developed within this work: (I) The use of explicit definitions of cloud service structure as inputs for placement and management processes to ensure that the resulting placements respect the internal relationships between different service components and any relevant constraints. (II) Technology for the runtime adaptation of Virtual Machines to enable the automatic adaptation of cloud service contexts in response to changes in their environment caused by, e.g., service migration across domains. (III) Systems for managing meta-data relating to resource usage in multi-domain grid computing and cloud computing infrastructures. (IV) A global fairshare prioritization mechanism that enables computational jobs to be consistently prioritized across a federation of several decentralized grid installations.

Each of these technologies will facilitate the emergence of decentralized computational infrastructures capable of utilizing resources from diverse infrastructure providers in an automatic and seamless manner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2013. , 64 p.
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 13.19
Keyword [en]
grid computing, cloud computing, accounting, billing, contextualization, monitoring, structure, fairshare, scheduling, federated
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80129ISBN: 978-91-7459-704-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-80129DiVA: diva2:646933
Public defence
2013-10-17, KBC-huset, Stora hörsalen KBC, KB3B1, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 215605EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 257115Swedish Research Council, 621-2005-3667eSSENCE - An eScience Collaboration
Note

Note that the author changed surname from Henriksson to Espling in 2011

Available from: 2013-09-23 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2013-09-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Scheduling and Monitoring of Internally Structured Services in Cloud Federations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scheduling and Monitoring of Internally Structured Services in Cloud Federations
2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), IEEE, 2011, 173-178 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cloud infrastructure providers may form Cloud federations to cope with peaks in resource demand and to make large-scale service management simpler for service providers. To realize Cloud federations, a number of technical and managerial difficulties need to be solved. We present ongoing work addressing three related key management topics, namely, specification, scheduling, and monitoring of services. Service providers need to be able to influence how their resources are placed in Cloud federations, as federations may cross national borders or include companies in direct competition with the service provider. Based on related work in the RESERVOIR project, we propose a way to define service structure and placement restrictions using hierarchical directed acyclic graphs. We define a model for scheduling in Cloud federations that abides by the specified placement constraints and minimizes the risk of violating Service-Level Agreements. We present a heuristic that helps the model determine which virtual machines (VMs) are suitable candidates for migration. To aid the scheduler, and to provide unified data to service providers, we also propose a monitoring data distribution architecture that introduces cross-site compatibility by means of semantic metadata annotations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011
Series
IEEE Symposium on Computers & Communications (ISCC), ISSN 1530-1346
Keyword
cloud computing, scheduling, monitoring, service structure
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computing Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40268 (URN)10.1109/ISCC.2011.5984012 (DOI)000298614900034 ()978-1-4577-0678-3 (ISBN)978-1-4577-0680-6 (ISBN)
Conference
16th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (lSCC)and First International Workshop on Management of Cloud Systems (MoCS 2011), Corfu, Greece, June 28-July 1, 2011
Available from: 2011-02-21 Created: 2011-02-21 Last updated: 2017-01-16Bibliographically approved
2. Modeling and Placement of Cloud Services with Internal Structure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Placement of Cloud Services with Internal Structure
Show others...
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing, ISSN 2168-7161, Vol. 4, no 4, 429-439 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Virtual machine placement is the process of mapping virtual machines to available physical hosts within a datacenter or on a remote datacenter in a cloud federation. Normally, service owners cannot influence the placement of service components beyond choosing datacenter provider and deployment zone at that provider. For some services, however, this lack of influence is a hindrance to cloud adoption. For example, services that require specific geographical deployment (due e.g. to legislation), or require redundancy by avoiding co-location placement of critical components. We present an approach for service owners to influence placement of their service components by explicitly specifying service structure, component relationships, and placement constraints between components. We show how the structure and constraints can be expressed and subsequently formulated as constraints that can be used in placement of virtual machines in the cloud. We use an integer linear programming scheduling approach to illustrate the approach, show the corresponding mathematical formulation of the model, and evaluate it using a large set of simulated input. Our experimental evaluation confirms the feasibility of the model and shows how varying amounts of placement constraints and data center background load affects the possibility for a solver to find a solution satisfying all constraints within a certain time-frame. Our experiments indicate that the number of constraints affects the ability of finding a solution to a higher degree than background load, and that for a high number of hosts with low capacity, component affinity is the dominating factor affecting the possibility to find a solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2016
Keyword
service management, service structure, placement, affinity, collocation, scheduling, integer linear programming, cloud computing
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80125 (URN)10.1109/TCC.2014.2362120 (DOI)000390560200005 ()
Funder
eSSENCE - An eScience Collaboration
Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2017-01-23Bibliographically approved
3. Runtime Virtual Machine Recontextualization for Clouds
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Runtime Virtual Machine Recontextualization for Clouds
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2013 (English)In: Euro-Par 2012: Parallel Processing Workshops: Euro-Par 2012: Parallel Processing Workshops , volume 7640 / [ed] Caragiannis et al., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, 567-576 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We introduce and define the concept of recontextualization for cloud applications by extending contextualization, i.e. the dynamic configuration of virtual machines (VM) upon initialization, with autonomous updates during runtime. Recontextualization allows VM images and instances to be dynamically re-configured without restarts or downtime, and the concept is applicable to all aspects of configuring a VM from virtual hardware to multi-tier software stacks. Moreover, we propose a runtime cloud recontextualization mechanism based on virtual device management that enables recontextualization without the need to customize the guest VM. We illustrate our concept and validate our mechanism via a use case demonstration: the reconfiguration of a cross-cloud migratable monitoring service in a dynamic cloud environment. We discuss the details of the interoperable recontextualization mechanism, its architecture and demonstrate a proof of concept implementation. A performance evaluation illustrates the feasibility of the approach and shows that the recontextualization mechanism performs adequately with an overhead of 18% of the total migration time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), ISSN 0302-9743 ; 7640 LNCS
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80127 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-36949-0_66 (DOI)978-3-642-36948-3 (ISBN)978-3-642-36949-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Parallel Processing Workshops, Euro-Par 2012: BDMC 2012, CGWS 2012, HeteroPar 2012, HiBB 2012, OMHI 2012, Paraphrase 2012, PROPER 2012, Resilience 2012, UCHPC 2012, VHPC 2012, 27 August 2012 through 31 August 2012, Rhodes Island
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 257115
Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2013-11-21Bibliographically approved
4. Contextualization: Dynamic Configuration of Virtual Machines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contextualization: Dynamic Configuration of Virtual Machines
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Virtual Machines (VMs) are commonly used as building blocks of IaaS cloud services. The number of running VM instances can be adjusted during runtime to achieve elasticity in the capacity of the service. New VM instances are based on templates that contain the basic configuration of the VM. Instance specific settings, settings unique to the infrastructure to which the instance is being deployed, are normally injected to the VM during the deployment phase through means of contextualization. In this work we present a layered approach to contextualization that supports different classes of contextualization data through the use of virtual devices. Inside each VM, data from different classes are layered on top of each other to create a unified file hierarchy using a small, custom file system. Context data can be updated during runtime by updating the contents of the virtual devices, making this approach the first contextualization approach to natively support recontextualization. Recontextualization enables run-time reconfiguration of a running service and can act as a trigger and key enabler of self-* techniques running inside the VM, allowing the service itself an unambiguous trigger for, e.g., further optimization in response to a changing environment. The runtime reconfiguration using recontextualization and its potential gains are shown in an example with a distributed file system, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach.

Keyword
Cloud Computing; Contextualization, Recontextualization, Configuration, Virtual Machine
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80128 (URN)
Projects
OPTIMIS
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 257115
Note

Submitted 2013

Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2013-09-19Bibliographically approved
5. Distributed usage logging for federated grids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed usage logging for federated grids
2010 (English)In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, Vol. 26, no 8, 1215-1225 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a non-intrusive solution to the increasingly important problem of shared logging for overlapping and federated Grid environments. The solution addresses three usage scenarios of hierarchical Grids, mutual cross-Grid resource utilization, and federated Cloud computing infrastructures. The approach is evaluated by extending the existing SweGrid Accounting System (SGAS) with a light-weight component that makes the system applicable to a wide range of usage scenarios. The proposed architecture is characterized by its simplicity, flexibility, and generality, and the new key component by its non-intrusiveness, flexibility, and ability to manage high load. We present requirements derived from three usage scenarios, and also include an in-depth description of the architecture and design, as well as the implementation and performance evaluation of a new component written for use with SGAS. We conclude from a performance evaluation that the sharing of usage data is not likely to be a limiting performance factor even in large-scale Grid scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2010
Keyword
Accounting; Shared logging; Grid computing; SGAS; Federated Grids; Federated Clouds
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computing Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-29915 (URN)10.1016/j.future.2010.02.001 (DOI)000281508700016 ()
Note

Daniel Henriksson Se även Daniel Espling

Available from: 2009-11-27 Created: 2009-11-27 Last updated: 2013-09-19Bibliographically approved
6. Accounting and Billing for Federated Cloud Infrastructures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accounting and Billing for Federated Cloud Infrastructures
2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Grid and Cooperative Computing (GCC 2009) / [ed] Juan. E. Guerrero, IEEE Computer Society Press , 2009, 268-275 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Emerging Cloud computing infrastructures provide computing resources on demand based on postpaid principles. For example, the RESERVOIR project develops an infrastructure capable of delivering elastic capacity that can automatically be increased or decreased in order to cost-efficiently fulfill established Service Level Agreements. This infrastructure also makes it possible for a data center to extend its total capacity by subcontracting additional resources from collaborating data centers, making the infrastructure a federation of Clouds. For accounting and billing, such infrastructures call for novel approaches to perform accounting for capacity that varies over time and for services (or more precisely virtual machines) that migrate between physical machines or even between data centers. For billing, needs arise for new approaches to simultaneously manage postpaid and prepaid payment schemes for capacity that varies over time in response to user needs. In this paper, we outline usage scenarios and a set of requirements for such infrastructures, and propose an accounting and billing architecture to be used within RESERVOIR. Even though the primary focus for this architecture is accounting and billing between resource consumers and infrastructure provides, future support for inter-site billing is also taken into account.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society Press, 2009
Keyword
accounting, billing, cloud computing, grid computing, SGAS, RESERVOIR
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computing Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-29904 (URN)10.1109/GCC.2009.37 (DOI)
Conference
Eighth International Conference on Grid and Cooperative Computing (GCC 2009), 27-29 August, Lanzhou, China
Note

Daniel Henriksson Se även Daniel Esping

Available from: 2009-11-26 Created: 2009-11-26 Last updated: 2013-09-19Bibliographically approved
7. Decentralized scalable fairshare scheduling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decentralized scalable fairshare scheduling
2013 (English)In: Future generations computer systems, ISSN 0167-739X, E-ISSN 1872-7115, Vol. 29, no 1, 130-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work addresses Grid fairshare allocation policy enforcement and presents Aequus, a decentralized system for Grid-wide fairshare job prioritization. The main idea of fairshare scheduling is to prioritize users with regard to predefined resource allocation quotas. The presented system builds on three contributions: a flexible tree-based policy model that allows delegation of policy definition, a job prioritization algorithm based on local enforcement of distributed fairshare policies, and a decentralized architecture for non-intrusive integration with existing scheduling systems. The system supports organization of users in virtual organizations and divides usage policies into local and global policy components that are defined by resource owners and virtual organizations. The architecture realization is presented in detail along with an evaluation of the system behavior in an emulated environment. In the evaluation, convergence noise types (mechanisms counteracting policy allocation convergence) are characterized and quantified, and the system is demonstrated to meet scheduling objectives and perform scalably under realistic operating conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Grid scheduling, Fairshare scheduling, Grid allocation policy enforcement
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-40492 (URN)10.1016/j.future.2012.06.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-02-24 Created: 2011-02-24 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
8. Integration and Evaluation of Decentralized Fairshare Prioritization (Aequus)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration and Evaluation of Decentralized Fairshare Prioritization (Aequus)
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fairshare is commonly one of the factors used by cluster resource management systems to prioritize jobs during scheduling. Despite the grid vision of a transparent and unified infrastructure, fairshare is normally calculated and enforced at the local cluster level rather than at a grid-wide scale. Aequus is a self-contained decentralized system for grid-wide fairshare job prioritization. Using Aequus, detailed global share policies can be combined with local cluster policies to offer a unified grid fairshare prioritization system where local administrations retain control over their clusters. This work shows how Aequus can be integrated with local resource management systems such as SLURM and Maui with minimal intrusion. Early results from production use are presented, and the system is further tested and evaluated for use at a nation-wide scale. Statistical models are created based on historical national grid usage data, and synthetic traces based on these models are used to create a diverse input set used to exemplify system behavior. The system is shown to behave consistently despite great variations in job arrival patterns and partial participation of some of the collaborating installations.

Keyword
Grid scheduling, Fairshare scheduling, Workload modeling
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80126 (URN)
Conference
19th IEEE International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Funder
Swedish Research Council, C0590801eSSENCE - An eScience Collaboration
Note

Submitted 2013

Available from: 2013-09-10 Created: 2013-09-10 Last updated: 2013-09-19Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
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Output format
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  • asciidoc
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