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Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. (Arcum)
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 24, no 4, 437-443 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 μg/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 μg/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 μg/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1 μg/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and time outdoors contributed to benzene and 1,3- butadiene exposure. For benzene, refueling a car was an additional determinant influencing the exposure level. Smoking or environmental tobacco smoke were significant determinants of exposure to NO2, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene. Those with a gas stove had higher NO2 exposure. Living in a single-family house increased the exposure to formaldehyde significantly. In a variance component model, the between-subject variance dominated for 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde, whereas the between-city variance dominated for NO2. For benzene, the between-subject and between-cities variances were similar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2014. Vol. 24, no 4, 437-443 p.
Keyword [en]
personal exposure, benzene, 1.3-butadiene, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, mixed models
National Category
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-80994DOI: 10.1038/jes.2013.57ISI: 000337651800013PubMedID: 24064531OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-80994DiVA: diva2:652172
Available from: 2013-09-30 Created: 2013-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Validation of diffusive samplers for nitrogen oxides and applications in various environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of diffusive samplers for nitrogen oxides and applications in various environments
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this thesis was to validate diffusive samplers for measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The Willems badge was validated for NO2 measurements both in laboratory tests and in field tests (Paper I-II). The sampling rate was 40.0 mL/min for ambient air concentrations and 46.0 mL/min for higher concentrations. No effects of different factors on sampling rate were found except for a reduced sampling rate at low wind velocity. The results of the laboratory validation were confirmed in field tests in ambient air and with personal sampling. The correlation between diffusive samplers and the reference monitor was good for ambient measurements. In conclusion, the Willems badge performs well at wind velocities down to 0.3 m/s, and this makes it suitable for personal sampling but less suitable for measurements in indoor air where the wind velocity is lower. Paper III reports about the field validation of the Ogawa diffusive samplers. Absolute humidity and temperature were found to have the strongest effect on sampling rate with lower uptake rates at low absolute humidity or temperature. The sampling rates above 0 °C were 8.6 mL/min for NO2 and 9.9 mL/min for NOx. NO2 and NOx concentrations that were determined using the manufacturer’s protocol were either underestimated or overestimated. The agreement between concentrations measured by the Ogawa sampler and the reference monitor was improved when field-determined sampling rates were used to calculate concentrations. Paper IV is based on a study with the aim of assessing the exposure of the Swedish general population to NO2 and some carcinogenic substances. The surveys were performed in one of five Swedish cities every year. In each survey, personal measurements of NO2 and some carcinogenic substances were conducted on 40 randomly selected individuals. In the study presented in this thesis, the NO2 part of the study is in focus and results were available for eight surveys conducted across the five cities. The estimated arithmetic mean concentration for the general Swedish population was 14.1 μg/m3. The exposure level for NO2 was higher for smokers compared with non-smokers, and the NO2 exposure levels were higher for people who had gas stoves at home or who were exposed at their workplace. The exposure was lower for those who had oil heating in their houses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2014. 67 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1685
Keyword
Nitrogen dioxide, NOx, diffusive sampling, validation, vehicle exhaust, exposure measurement
National Category
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-95757 (URN)978-91-7601-144-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-11-28, Hörsal B Unod T 9, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-07 Created: 2014-11-05 Last updated: 2017-02-14Bibliographically approved

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Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, AnnikaTornevi, AndreasForsberg, Bertil

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