The effects of fuel composition and ammonium sulfate addition on PCDD, PCDF, PCN and PCB concentrations during the combustion of biomass and paper production residuals.
2014 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 94, 20-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, the higher levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can promote the formation of deposits and organic pollutants. Here, the effect of fuel composition and the inhibitory effects of ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the flue gas of a lab-scale combustor was investigated. Ammonium sulfate is often used as a corrosion-preventing additive and may also inhibit formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In addition to PCDDs and PCDFs, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN) and biphenyls (PCB) were also analyzed. It was found that the flue gas composition changed dramatically when (NH4)2SO4 was added: CO, SO2, and NH3 levels increased, while those of HCl decreased to almost zero. However, the additive's effects on POP formation were less pronounced. When (NH4)2SO4 was added to give an S:Cl ratio of 3, only the PCDF concentration was reduced, indicating that this ratio was not sufficient to achieve a general reduction in POP emissions. Conversely, at an S:Cl ratio of 6, significant reductions in the WHO-TEQ value and the PCDD and PCDF contents of the flue gas were observed. The effect on the PCDF concentration was especially pronounced. PCN formation seemed to be promoted by the elevated CO concentrations caused by adding (NH4)2SO4.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014. Vol. 94, 20-26 p.
Inhibition, PCDD/F, PCN, PCB, Combustion, Biomass
Chemical Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-82587DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.08.059PubMedID: 24053941OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-82587DiVA: diva2:662004
Available online: 18 September 20132013-11-052013-11-052014-01-29Bibliographically approved