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Integrating carbon emissions from lakes and streams in a subarctic catchment
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. (Arcum)
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. (Arcum)
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, Vol. 118, no 3, 1200-1207 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Northern inland waters emit CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere but the importance of these emissions is poorly understood due to a lack of integrated catchment-scale estimates of carbon (C) emissions from lakes and streams. In this study we quantified the annual emission of CO2 and CH4 from 27 lakes and 23 stream segments in a 15km(2) subarctic catchment in northern Sweden. All lakes and streams were net sources of C to the atmosphere on an annual basis. Streams dominated (96%) the aquatic CO2 emission while lakes (61%) dominated the aquatic CH4 emission. Total aquatic C emission from the catchment was estimated to be 9.1gCm(-2)yr(-1) (98% as CO2). Although streams only accounted for 4% of the aquatic area in the catchment, they accounted for 95% of the total emission. The C emissions from lakes and streams were considerably larger than previously reported downstream waterborne export of C from the catchment, indicating that the atmospheric losses of C in the aquatic systems are an important component in the catchment C balance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. Vol. 118, no 3, 1200-1207 p.
Keyword [en]
subarctic, streams, lakes, CO2, CH4, emission
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-82832DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20092ISI: 000325549900019OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-82832DiVA: diva2:663318
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2008-4390
Note

We acknowledge the contributions of NSERC (Canada), the Abisko Scientific Research Station (Sweden), Swedish Research Council, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, and the Lund University GIS Centre for the funding of the lidar and DEM survey [cf. Hasan et al. 2012].

Available from: 2013-11-11 Created: 2013-11-11 Last updated: 2016-05-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The role of inland waters in the carbon cycle at high latitudes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of inland waters in the carbon cycle at high latitudes
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Understanding the drivers of climate change requires knowledge about the global carbon (C) cycle. Although inland waters play an important role in the C cycle by emitting and burying C, streams and lakes are in general overlooked in bottom-up approached C budgets. In this thesis I estimated emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from all lakes and streams in a 15 km2 subarctic catchment in northern Sweden, and put it in relation to the total catchment C exchange. I show that high-latitude aquatic systems in general and streams in particular are hotspots for C emission to the atmosphere. Annually, the aquatic systems surveyed in this study emitted about 10.8 ± 4.9 g C m-2 yr-1 (ca. 98 % as CO2) which is more than double the amount of the C laterally exported from the catchment. Although the streams only covered about 4% of the total aquatic area they emitted ca. 95% of the total aquatic C emission. For lake emissions, the ice break-ups were the most important annual events, counting for ca. 45% of the emissions. Overall, streams dominated the aquatic CO2 emission in the catchment while lakes dominated CH4 emission, 96 % and 62 % of the totals, respectively. When summing terrestrial and aquatic C fluxes together it showed that the aquatic emissions alone account for approximately two thirds of the total annual catchment C loss. The consequence of not including inland waters in bottom-up derived C budgets is therefore a risk of overestimating the sink capacity of the subarctic landscape. However, aquatic systems can also act as C sinks, by accumulating C in sediment and thereby storing C over geological time frames. Sediment C burial rates were estimated in six lakes from a chronology based on 210Pb dating of multiple sediment cores. The burial rate ranged between 5 - 25 g C m-2 yr-1, which is of the same magnitude as lake C emissions. I show that the emission:burial ratio is about ten times higher in boreal compared to in subarctic-arctic lakes. These results indicate that the balance between lakes C emission and burial is both directly and indirectly dependent on climate. This process will likely result in a future increase of C emissions from high-latitude lakes, while the C burial capacity of these same lakes sediments weaken.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2014. 17 p.
Keyword
lakes, streams, carbon (C), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), boreal, sub-arctic, arctic, emission, sediments, burial, budget
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Limnology; Earth Sciences with Specialization Environmental Analysis; Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-84541 (URN)978-91-7459-781-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-01-31, KBC - huset, Stora hörsalen, (KB3B1), Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-385 2008-4390
Available from: 2014-01-10 Created: 2014-01-08 Last updated: 2016-11-14Bibliographically approved

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Lundin, Erik J.Giesler, ReinerThompson, Megan S.Karlsson, Jan
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