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Validation of the Willems badge diffusive sampler for nitrogen dioxide determinations in occupational environments
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. National Institute for Working Life, Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, Umeå.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. National Institute for Working Life, Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, Umeå.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. National Institute for Working Life, Programme for Chemical Exposure Assessment, Umeå.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
2002 (English)In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 127, no 1, 163-168 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Willems badge, a diffusive sampler for nitrogen dioxide, has previously been validated for ambient air measurements. This paper describes the laboratory and field validation of the Willems badge for personal sampling under working environment conditions. The mean sampling rate in the laboratory tests was 46 ml min(-1), with an RSD of 12%. No statistically significant effects on sampling rate of the sampling time, concentration of NO2 or relative humidity were found. A slightly decreased sampling rate was observed at low wind velocity. This was also confirmed during static sampling, which makes the sampler less appropriate for static sampling indoors. No back diffusion was observed. Storage of the samplers for two weeks before or after exposure did not affect the sampling rate. Our analysis is based on a modified colorimetric method, performed by FIA (flow injection analysis). This technique was compared to ion chromatography analysis. The use of ion chromatography lowered the detection limit from 11 to 2 microg m(-3) for an 8 h sample, and furthermore enabled the detection of other anions. In conclusion, the diffusive sampler was found to perform well for personal measurements in industrial environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002. Vol. 127, no 1, 163-168 p.
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-83469DOI: 10.1039/b107844eISI: 000173475200033PubMedID: 11827385OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-83469DiVA: diva2:667419
Available from: 2013-11-26 Created: 2013-11-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Validation of diffusive samplers for nitrogen oxides and applications in various environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of diffusive samplers for nitrogen oxides and applications in various environments
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this thesis was to validate diffusive samplers for measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The Willems badge was validated for NO2 measurements both in laboratory tests and in field tests (Paper I-II). The sampling rate was 40.0 mL/min for ambient air concentrations and 46.0 mL/min for higher concentrations. No effects of different factors on sampling rate were found except for a reduced sampling rate at low wind velocity. The results of the laboratory validation were confirmed in field tests in ambient air and with personal sampling. The correlation between diffusive samplers and the reference monitor was good for ambient measurements. In conclusion, the Willems badge performs well at wind velocities down to 0.3 m/s, and this makes it suitable for personal sampling but less suitable for measurements in indoor air where the wind velocity is lower. Paper III reports about the field validation of the Ogawa diffusive samplers. Absolute humidity and temperature were found to have the strongest effect on sampling rate with lower uptake rates at low absolute humidity or temperature. The sampling rates above 0 °C were 8.6 mL/min for NO2 and 9.9 mL/min for NOx. NO2 and NOx concentrations that were determined using the manufacturer’s protocol were either underestimated or overestimated. The agreement between concentrations measured by the Ogawa sampler and the reference monitor was improved when field-determined sampling rates were used to calculate concentrations. Paper IV is based on a study with the aim of assessing the exposure of the Swedish general population to NO2 and some carcinogenic substances. The surveys were performed in one of five Swedish cities every year. In each survey, personal measurements of NO2 and some carcinogenic substances were conducted on 40 randomly selected individuals. In the study presented in this thesis, the NO2 part of the study is in focus and results were available for eight surveys conducted across the five cities. The estimated arithmetic mean concentration for the general Swedish population was 14.1 μg/m3. The exposure level for NO2 was higher for smokers compared with non-smokers, and the NO2 exposure levels were higher for people who had gas stoves at home or who were exposed at their workplace. The exposure was lower for those who had oil heating in their houses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2014. 67 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1685
Keyword
Nitrogen dioxide, NOx, diffusive sampling, validation, vehicle exhaust, exposure measurement
National Category
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-95757 (URN)978-91-7601-144-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-11-28, Hörsal B Unod T 9, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-07 Created: 2014-11-05 Last updated: 2017-02-14Bibliographically approved

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Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, AnnikaLindahl, RogerLevin, Jan-Olof

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Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, AnnikaLindahl, RogerLevin, Jan-OlofKarlsson, Doris
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The Analyst
Chemical SciencesEnvironmental Health and Occupational Health

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