Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000-2011
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 72, 22646- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background. Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies.Study design and methods. Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000ï¿œ2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized ï¿œ underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water.Results. Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40ï¿œ80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32ï¿œ90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5ï¿œ12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages ï¿œ 0.2ï¿œ2.7%, Clostridia spores, Giardia cysts, pathogenic bacteria, Rotavirus ï¿œ up to 0.8%. Of a total of 56 chemical pollutants analyzed in water samples from centralized water supply systems, 32 pollutants were found to be in excess of hygienic limits, with the predominant pollutants being Fe (up to 55%), Cl (up to 57%), Al (up to 43%) and Mn (up to 45%).Conclusion. In 18 selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East Category I and II water reservoirs, water sources (centralized ï¿œ underground, surface; non-centralized) and drinking water are highly contaminated by chemical and biological agents. Full-scale reform of the Russian water industry and water security system is urgently needed, especially in selected regions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Järfälla: Co-Action Publishing , 2013. Vol. 72, 22646- p.
water security, drinking water, centralized, non-centralized water sources, chemical, biological contamination, pollutants, bacteria, spores, cysts, virus, pesticides, metals, Russian Arctic
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-83985DOI: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.22646ISI: 000328568200001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-83985DiVA: diva2:678402