Exosomes secreted by human placenta carry functional Fas ligand and TRAIL molecules and convey apoptosis in activated immune cells, suggesting exosome-mediated immune privilege of the fetus
2013 (English)In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 191, no 11, 5515-5523 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Apoptosis is crucially important in mediating immune privilege of the fetus during pregnancy. We investigated the expression and in vitro apoptotic activity of two physiologically relevant death messengers, the TNF family members Fas ligand (FasL) and TRAIL in human early and term placentas. Both molecules were intracellularly expressed, confined to the late endosomal compartment of the syncytiotrophoblast, and tightly associated to the generation and secretion of placental exosomes. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we show that FasL and TRAIL are expressed on the limiting membrane of multivesicular bodies where, by membrane invagination, intraluminal microvesicles carrying membranal bioactive FasL and TRAIL are formed and released in the extracellular space as exosomes. Analyzing exosomes secreted from placental explant cultures, to our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that FasL and TRAIL are clustered on the exosomal membrane as oligomerized aggregates ready to form death-inducing signaling complex. Consistently, placental FasL-and TRAIL-carrying exosomes triggered apoptosis in Jurkat T cells and activated PBMC in a dose-dependent manner. Limiting the expression of functional FasL and TRAIL to exosomes comprise a dual benefit: 1) storage of exosomal FasL and TRAIL in multivesicular bodies is protected from proteolytic cleavage and 2) upon secretion, delivery of preformed membranal death molecules by exosomes rapidly triggers apoptosis. Our results suggest that bioactive FasL-and TRAIL-carrying exosomes, able to convey apoptosis, are secreted by the placenta and tie up the immunomodulatory and protective role of human placenta to its exosome-secreting ability.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The American Association of Immunologists , 2013. Vol. 191, no 11, 5515-5523 p.
Immunology in the medical area
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-84107DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1301885ISI: 000327180600019OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-84107DiVA: diva2:680481