Outdoor recreation – A necessity or a luxury?: Estimation of Engel curves for Sweden
2013 (English)In: Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, ISSN 2213-0780, Vol. 3-4, 49-56 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Income constitutes one important constraint for the degree of participation in outdoor recreation. The effect of this constraint can be measured by the income elasticity of outdoor recreation demand, which is of policy interest when the distribution of recreation opportunities across socio economic groups is a concern. This study investigated income elasticity of expenditures for three types of outdoor recreation in Sweden, at the individual level: outdoor recreation as an aggregated composite good, outdoor recreation close to home (less than 100km away from the permanent residence), and hunting. The findings indicated that outdoor recreation as a composite is a luxury good with elasticity in excess of unity (i.e. a relative increase in income will lead to a greater relative increase in demand). The elasticities of the specific activities were found to be lower. Outdoor recreation close to home was characterized as a necessity with elasticity less than unity (i.e. a relative increase in income will lead to a smaller relative increase in demand). The results further suggested that an increase in income could lead to either a decrease or an increase in the demand for hunting, indicating that hunting might be an inferior good or possibly a necessity.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. Vol. 3-4, 49-56 p.
Outdoor recreation, Engel curve, Luxury, Necessity, Income elasticity
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-84472DOI: 10.1016/j.jort.2013.09.002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-84472DiVA: diva2:684383