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Nitrogen Doping Mechanism in Small Diameter Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Impact on Electronic Properties and Growth Selectivity
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. (Thomas Wågberg)
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2013 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 117, no 48, 25805-25816 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nitrogen doping in carbon nanostructures has attracted interest for more than a decade, and recent implementation of such structures in energy conversion systems has boosted the interest even more. Despite numerous studies, the structural conformation and stability of nitrogen functionalities in small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), and the impact of these functionalities on the electronic and mechanical properties of the SWNTs, are incomplete. Here we report a detailed study on nitrogen doping in SWNTs with diameters in the range of 0.8?1.0 nm, with well-defined chirality. We show that the introduction of nitrogen in the carbon framework significantly alters the stability of certain tubes, opening for the possibility to selectively grow nitrogen-doped SWNTs with certain chirality and diameter. At low nitrogen concentration, pyridinic functionalities are readily incorporated and the tubular structure is well pertained. At higher concentrations, pyrrolic functionalities are formed, which leads to significant structural deformation of the nanotubes and hence a stop in growth of crystalline SWNTs. Raman spectroscopy is an important tool to understand guest atom doping and electronic charge transfer in SWNTs. By correlating the influence of defined nitrogen functionalities on the electronic properties of SWNTs with different chirality, we make precise interpretation of experimental Raman data. We show that the previous interpretation of the double-resonance G?-peak in many aspects is wrong and instead can be well-correlated to the type of nitrogen doping of SWNTs originating from the p- or n-doping nature of the nitrogen incorporation. Our results are supported by experimental and theoretical data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2013. Vol. 117, no 48, 25805-25816 p.
National Category
Materials Chemistry Theoretical Chemistry
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-84713DOI: 10.1021/jp409518mOAI: diva2:688560
Swedish Research Council, dnr-2010-3973
Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2015-01-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Based One-Dimensional Structures: Tuning Physical and Chemical Properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Based One-Dimensional Structures: Tuning Physical and Chemical Properties
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Carbon nanostructures have been extensively used in different applications; ranging from electronic and optoelectronic devices to energy conversion. The interest stems from the fact that covalently bonded carbon atoms can form a wide variety of structures with zero-, one- and two-dimensional configuration with different physical properties. For instance, while fullerene molecules (zero-dimensional carbon structures) realize semiconductor behavior, two-dimensional graphene shows metallic behavior with exceptional electron mobility. Moreover the possibility to even further tune these fascinating properties by means of doping, chemical modification and combining carbon based sub-classes into new hybrid structures make the carbon nanostructure even more interesting for practical application. 

This thesis focuses on synthesizing SWCNT and different C60 one-dimensional structures as well as tuning their properties by means of different chemical and structural modification. The purpose of the study is to have better understanding of the synthesis and modification techniques, which opens for better control over the properties of the product for desired applications.

In this thesis carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on iron/cobalt catalyst particles. The effect of catalyst particle size on the diameter of the grown CNTs is systematically studied and in the case of SWCNTs it is shown that the chirality distribution of the grown SWCNTs can be tuned by altering the catalyst particle composition. In further experiments, incorporation of the nitrogen atoms in SWCNTs structures is examined. A correlation between experimental characterization techniques and theoretical calculation enable for precise analysis of different types of nitrogen configuration in SWCNTs structure and in particular their effect on growth termination and electronic properties of SWCNTs are studied.

C60 one-dimensional structures are grown through a solution based method known as Liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation (LLIP). By controlling the crystal seed formation at the early stage of the growth the morphology and size of the grown C60 one-dimensional structures where tuned from nanorods to large diameter rods and tubes. We further introduce a facile solution-based method to photo-polymerize the as-grown C60 nanorods, and show that such a method crates a polymeric C60 shell around the nanorods. The polymeric C60 shell exhibits high stability against common hydrophobic C60 solvents, which makes the photo-polymerized nanorods ideal for further solution-based processing. This is practically shown by decoration of both as grown and photo-polymerized nanorods by palladium nanoparticles and comparison between their electrochemical activities. The electrical properties of the C60 nanorods are also examined by utilizing a field effect transistor geometry comprising different C60 nanorods.

In the last part of the study a variant of CNT is synthesized in which large diameter, few-walled CNTs spontaneously transform to a collapsed ribbon shape structure, the so called collapsed carbon nanotube (CCNT). By inserting C60 molecules into the duct edges of CCNT a new hybrid structure comprising C60 molecules and CCNT is synthesized and characterized. A further C60 insertion lead to reinflation of CCNTs, which eventually form few-walled CNT completely filled with C60 molecules.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2015. 71 p.
Carbon Nanotube, single-walled carbon nanotube, nitrogen doped, chemical vapor deposition, fullerene, hybrid structures
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-97551 (URN)978-91-7601-191-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-01-28, MA121, MIT Huset, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Available from: 2015-01-07 Created: 2014-12-22 Last updated: 2015-01-04Bibliographically approved

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Barzegar, Hamid RezaGracia-Espino, EduardoSharifi, TivaNitze, FlorianWågberg, Thomas
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