Hip Fracture Risk and Cadmium in Erythrocytes: A Nested Case-Control Study with Prospectively Collected Samples
2014 (English)In: Calcified Tissue International, ISSN 0171-967X, E-ISSN 1432-0827, Vol. 94, no 2, 183-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Several studies have investigated the relation between bone mass density and cadmium exposure, but only few studies have been performed on fractures and biomarkers of cadmium. This study analyzed the association between hip fracture risk and cadmium in erythrocytes (Ery-Cd). Prospective samples from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study's biobank were used for 109 individuals who later in life had sustained a low-trauma hip fracture, matched with two controls of the same age and gender. The mean concentration of Ery-Cd (±SD) in case samples was 1.3 ± 1.4 versus 0.9 ± 1.0 μg/L in controls. The odds ratio (OR) was 1.63 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.42] for suffering a hip fracture for each microgram per liter increase in Ery-Cd. However, when taking smoking into consideration (never, former, or current), neither Ery-Cd nor smoking showed a statistically significant increase in fracture risk. Using multiple conditional logistic regression with BMI, height, and smoking, the estimated OR for a 1-μg/L increase in Ery-Cd was 1.52 (95 % CI 0.77-2.97). Subgroup analysis showed an increased fracture risk among women (OR = 1.94, 95 % CI 1.18-3.20, for a 1 μg/L increase), which also remained in the multiple analysis (OR = 3.33, 95 % CI 1.29-8.56). This study shows that fracture risk is associated with Ery-Cd. It is, however, not possible to draw firm conclusions on whether cadmium is the causal factor or whether other smoking-related factors cause this association. Subgroup analysis shows that cadmium is a risk factor for hip fracture among women.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014. Vol. 94, no 2, 183-190 p.
Cadmium, Environmental exposure, Heavy metal, Hip fracture, Prospective
Clinical Medicine Environmental Health and Occupational Health Orthopedics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-84733DOI: 10.1007/s00223-013-9796-5ISI: 000330827700007PubMedID: 24101229OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-84733DiVA: diva2:688880
FunderFormas, 2005-875Swedish Research Council, K2006-72X-20155013EU, European Research Council, FOOD-CT-2006-016253