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Epidemiology of Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection Hospitalizations Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected South African Children, 2010-2011
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, Vol. 208, no Supplement: 3, S217-S226 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background. There are limited data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among children in settings with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in South Africa. Methods. Children aged <5 years admitted to sentinel surveillance hospitals with physician-diagnosed neonatal sepsis or ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for RSV and other viruses. Associations between possible risk factors and severe outcomes for RSV infection among HIV-infected and uninfected children were examined. The relative risk of hospitalization in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children was calculated in 1 site with population denominators. Results. Of 4489 participants, 4293 (96%) were tested for RSV, of whom 1157 (27%) tested positive. With adjustment for age, HIV-infected children had a 3-5-fold increased risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI (2010 relative risk, 5.6; [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.5-6.4]; 2011 relative risk, 3.1 [ 95% CI, 2.6-3.6]). On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected children with RSV-associated ALRTI had higher odds of death (adjusted odds ratio. 31.1; 95% CI, 5.4-179.8) and hospitalization for >5 days (adjusted odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.5-10.6) than HIV-uninfected children. Conclusion. HIV-infected children have a higher risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI and a poorer outcome than HIV-uninfected children. These children should be targeted for interventions aimed at preventing severe RSV disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2013. Vol. 208, no Supplement: 3, S217-S226 p.
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Immunology in the medical area
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-85086DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jit479ISI: 000327544900009OAI: diva2:691948
Available from: 2014-01-29 Created: 2014-01-28 Last updated: 2014-01-29Bibliographically approved

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Kahn, Kathleen
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