umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Increase in sensitization to common airborne allergens among adults: two population-based studies 15 years apart
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine. The OLIN studies, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå and Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sunderby Central Hospital of Norrbotten, Luleå.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine. The OLIN studies, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. The OLIN studies, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå.
2013 (English)In: Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, ISSN 1710-1484, E-ISSN 1710-1492, Vol. 9, no 1, 20- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Studies on time trends of allergic sensitization among adults are rare. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of allergic sensitization to common airborne allergens among adults 15 years apart and to identify risk factors for allergic sensitization.

METHODS: Clinical examinations including skin prick test (SPT) and structured interviews were performed in two random population samples in 1994 and 2009. Furthermore, specific IgE was analyzed in 2009. SPT data were available for 483 subjects in 1994 and for 463 subjects in 2009 in ages 20--60 years. Specific IgE was analyzed in 692 subjects in ages 20--79 years.

RESULTS: Sensitization to cat (16% to 26%, p < 0.001), dog (13% to 25%, p < 0.001), birch (13% to 18%, p = 0.031) and timothy (12% to 21%, p < 0.001), based on SPT, increased significantly from 1994 to 2009. Sensitization to any positive SPT increased from 35% to 39%, p = 0.13.The proportion of having >=3 positive SPT reactions increased from 40% to 56%, p = 0.002. The sensitization pattern yielded similar results based on specific IgE. Risk factors for allergic sensitization were having a family history of allergy (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0-4.8 for any positive SPT; OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8-4.0 for any elevated IgE) and urban living (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.7; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4).

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of allergic sensitization to major airborne allergens as well as multi-sensitization increased significantly between the study years. Young age, a family history of allergy and urban living were significant risk factors for allergic sensitization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2013. Vol. 9, no 1, 20- p.
Keyword [en]
Allergic sensitization, Epidemiology, IgE, Population study, Prevalence, Skin prick test
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Respiratory Medicine and Allergy Immunology in the medical area
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-85534DOI: 10.1186/1710-1492-9-20ISI: 000332407900001PubMedID: 23758681OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-85534DiVA: diva2:694255
Available from: 2014-02-06 Created: 2014-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The epidemiology of allergic sensitization and the relation to asthma and rhinitis: the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies thesis XIV
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The epidemiology of allergic sensitization and the relation to asthma and rhinitis: the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies thesis XIV
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Allergic sensitization is the most important risk factor for asthma and rhinitis among children, adolescents and young adults. Less is known about the incidence and remission of allergic sensitization, particularly in older adults. Furthermore, it is not clear if the earlier documented increase in prevalence of allergic sensitization continues. This thesis is focused on prevalence, incidence and remission of allergic sensitization to airborne allergens among adolescents and adults as well as on time trends in prevalence among adults. Furthermore, associated risk factors and the relation of allergic sensitization to asthma and rhinitis were assessed.

Methods: In the study of children and adolescents, incidence, remission and prevalence of allergic sensitization were assessed in a cohort study of schoolchildren, aged 7-8 years (y) at baseline. In the studies of adults, incidence and remission of allergic sensitization were assessed in a randomly selected adult population sample in 1994 (n=664) aged 20-69 y, which was followed up in 2004 (n=555). Trends in prevalence of allergic sensitization were assessed by comparing two cross-sectional studies; the cohort from 1994 and another randomly selsected population sample examined in 2009 (n=737). The relation of allergic sensitization to asthma and rhinitis was determined in the adult cohort in 2009. Allergic sensitization was assessed by skin prick test (SPT) with ten common airborne allergens at ages 7-8, 11-12 and 19 y in the cohort of children and in the participants ≤ 60 y in the adult cohorts. Specific IgE to nine airborne allergens was analyzed in the adult cohorts in 2004 and 2009. Risk factors for allergic sensitization and variables defining respiratory disease and symptoms were assessed by questionnaires in the cohort of children and by structured interviews in the adult cohorts.

Results: The 10-year cumulative incidence of allergic sensitization among the adults from 1994 to 2004 was 5%, while remission was 32%. In both adult cohorts, the prevalence of allergic sensitization was highest among young adults, aged 20-29 y, 55% and 61% and decreased significantly with increasing age. Among children and adolescents, both incidence and persistence of allergic sensitization were high, and the prevalence of allergic sensitization increased by age from 21% at age 7-8 y to 42% at age 19 y. Multisensitization at age 19 y was strongly associated with early onset of sensitization. The prevalence of sensitization to the major specific allergens birch, timothy, cat and dog as well as multisensitization (from 40% in 1994 to 56% in 2009, p=0.002) increased significantly from 1994 to 2009 among the adults. Sensitization to any allergen increased from 35% to 39%, however not significantly (p=0.13). A family history of allergic rhinitis was strongly and consistently associated with allergic sensitization in all ages. Male sex and urban living were significantly positively and birth order and furry animals at home in childhood were negatively associated with onset of sensitization before the age of 7-8 y, but not with onset of sensitization from 11-12y to 19 y. Young adult age and urban living were significant factors associated with allergic sensitization in adult age. Sensitization to any animal was significantly positively associated with current asthma (OR4.80 (95% CI 2.68-8.60)), whereas both sensitization to any pollen (OR 4.25 (2.55-7.06)) and any animal (OR 3.90 (95% CI 2.31-6.58)) were associated with current allergic rhinitis. The association between allergic sensitization and allergic rhinitis was strongest in young adult age and decreased with increasing age, while asthma was similarly associated with sensitization to any animal across all adult ages. Among asthmatics, the prevalence of allergic sensitization decreased with increasing age of asthma onset.

Conclusion: Both incidence and persistence of allergic sensitization were high among children and adolescents explaining the increase in prevalence by increasing age. An inverse pattern with low incidence and high remission of allergic sensitization was seen among adults. The decrease in prevalence of allergic sensitization by increasing adult age might at least partly be explained by normal ageing and not only by an effect of year of birth (cohort effect). The significant increase in prevalence of sensitization to the specific allergens explained the significant increase in multisensitization over 15 years. A family history of allergy was the strongest and the only consistent risk factor for allergic sensitization in all ages. The prevalence of allergic sensitization decreased with increasing age of asthma onset among adult asthmatics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2015. 74 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1755
Keyword
adolescence, adults, allergic rhinitis, allergic sensitization, asthma, childhood, epidemiology, specific IgE
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Research subject
Lung Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-109776 (URN)978-91-7601-346-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-11-06, Sunderby Sjukhus, Konferenscentrum, Aulan, Sunderby Sjukhus, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-10-09 Created: 2015-10-06 Last updated: 2015-10-08Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(831 kB)174 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 831 kBChecksum SHA-512
c4420b7d992df467e535dd938fad9a7ca0b2aea32ddedb1a762224d2ac430c06a233bd189011b698f3a4e96c46d07a2cc468a6b9db9543f136712e0fa5902857
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Authority records BETA

Warm, KatjaLindberg, AnneRönmark, Eva

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Warm, KatjaLindberg, AnneRönmark, Eva
By organisation
Pulmonary MedicineOccupational and Environmental Medicine
In the same journal
Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and EpidemiologyRespiratory Medicine and AllergyImmunology in the medical area

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 174 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 147 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf