Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Synchronized metronome training induces changes in the kinematic properties of the golf swing
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0839-3681
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0366-4609
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2014 (English)In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, Vol. 13, no 1, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on movement dynamics during golf swing performance, as captured by kinematic analysis. A one-group, between-test design was applied on thirteen male golfers (27.5 ± 4.6 years old, 12.7 ± 4.9 golf handicap) who completed twelve sessions of SMT over a four week period. Pre- and post-assessments of golf swings made with three different clubs (4-iron, 7-ironand pitching wedge) were performed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Club peak velocity at three different swing phases andcross-correlation analysis of time-series signals were made on joint couplings(wrist-elbow-shoulder) of both arms, and between joints and the club, during the full golf swing. There were significantly higher cross-correlations between joint-couplings and concomitant changes of the associated phase-shift differences, as well as reduced phase-shift variability at post-test. No significant effect of SMT was found for the club peak velocities. We suggest that domain-general influences of SMT on the underlying brain-based motorcontrol strategies lead to a more coordinated movement pattern of the golf swing performance, which may explain previous observations of significantly improved golf shot accuracy and decreased variability after SMT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2014. Vol. 13, no 1, 1-16 p.
Keyword [en]
Timing training, coordination, movement dynamics, joint couplings, cross-correlation analysis
National Category
Psychology Physiotherapy
Research subject
Psychology; Rehabilitation Medicine
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-85852DOI: 10.1080/14763141.2013.873817ISI: 000334040600001OAI: diva2:695587
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, 47/09, 179/07Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2014-02-11 Created: 2014-02-11 Last updated: 2015-01-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effect of timing training in golf and soccer players: skill, movement organization, and brain activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of timing training in golf and soccer players: skill, movement organization, and brain activity
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background Although trainers and athletes consider ‘good timing skills’ to be critical for optimal sport performance, little is known in regard to how sport-specific skills may benefit from timing training. Thus, assuming that all motor performances are mediated by an internal timing mechanism, enhanced motor timing is expected to have positive effects on both planning and execution of movement performance, and consequently on complex sports actions as golf or soccer. Accordingly, in order to increase our knowledge of the importance of motor timing and possible effects of timing training, this thesis examines the effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT), thought to improve the execution of motor programs and to enhance motor skills in golf and soccer players.

Methods Study I examined the effects of SMT on motor timing abilities and its potential effect on golf shot accuracy and consistency in 25 experienced male golfers. Additionally, Study II examined the effects of SMT on the spatiotemporal movement organisation and dynamics of the golf swing performance, as captured by kinematic measurements and analyses in thirteen male golfers. Study III examined the effect of SMT on accuracy and variability in a soccer specific, cross-pass task in elite and sub-elite female soccer players. Moreover, the underlying brain activity was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the corresponding neural activity when passively observing the cross-pass task, and the possible pre- to post training effects.

Results SMT was shown to improve motor timing ability, by means of less timing asynchrony and with associated changes in timing variability, in both golf- and soccer-players. Additionally, significant improvements in golf shot and soccer cross-pass performance, by means of significant increase in outcome accuracy combined with a decrease in outcome variability was found. From the kinematic investigation in Study II, results indicate that improved motor timing, as an effect of SMT, lead to a more coordinated and dynamic swing performance, and with decreased variability in the temporal structure of the swing motion. Finally, it was found that SMT induces changes in the activity of the action observation network (AON), underpinning action observation and action prediction, by means of decreased activation within bilateral cerebellum, fusiform gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. These findings hint at a more efficient pattern of neural recruitment during action observation, after SMT.

Conclusion In summary, this thesis provides evidence that four weeks of SMT improved the participant’s motor timing and synchronization abilities, and showed influence on both behavioral and neurophysiological motor programs and skill performance in golf and soccer players. Thus, by improved outcome accuracy and decreased variability, affecting the coordinated movement pattern and organisation, as well as affecting the associated underlying brain activation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2014. 85 p.
Motor timing, rhythmicity, timing training, golf shot, golf swing, kinematics, precision, variability, coordination, movement dynamics, soccer, fMRI, mirror neurons, action observation, cerebellum, perception - action.
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86664 (URN)978-91-7601-026-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-03-27, Beteendevetarhuset, 102, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports
Available from: 2014-03-06 Created: 2014-03-04 Last updated: 2015-01-21Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Sommer, MariusHäger, CharlotteRönnqvist, Louise
By organisation
Department of PsychologyDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation
In the same journal
Sports Biomechanics

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 309 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link