The Newly Discovered Cytokine IL-34 Is Expressed in Gingival Fibroblasts, Shows Enhanced Expression by Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Stimulates Osteoclast Differentiation
2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 12, e81665- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background: Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a recently discovered cytokine functionally overlapping macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), a mediator of inflammation and osteoclastogenesis in bone-degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The objective of this study was to assess the expression of IL-34 in human gingival fibroblasts and investigate if the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and Interleukin-1B (IL-1 beta) modulate its expression, and moreover if IL-34 could contribute to recruitment of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Methods: IL-34 expression was evaluated in gingival fibroblasts by real time PCR following stimulation by TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and treatment with inhibitors of intracellular pathways. The formation of osteoclasts was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining of bone marrow macrophages treated with IL-34 or M-CSF in addition to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Results: IL-34 was expressed in gingival fibroblasts. The expression was enhanced by TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Further, IL-34 supports RANKL-induced osteoclastogensis of bone marrow macrophages, independently of M-CSF. Summary: In conclusion, this study shows for the first time IL-34 expression in human gingival fibroblasts, stimulated by TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, key mediators of periodontal inflammation. Furthermore, IL-34 can be substituted for M-CSF in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. IL-34 may contribute to inflammation and osteoclastogenesis in bone-degenerative diseases such as periodontitis.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science , 2013. Vol. 8, no 12, e81665- p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-85797DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081665ISI: 000328707400028OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-85797DiVA: diva2:695917