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Improved Process Modeling for a Lime Rotary Kiln Using Equilibrium Chemistry
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Cementa AB, Res & Dev, Heidelberg Cement Grp, Heidelberg, Germany. (Thermal Energy Conversion Laboratory)
Nordkalk Oy Ab, FIN-21600 Pargas, Finland.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Åbo Akad Univ, Proc Chem Res Grp, Turku, Finland. (ETPC)
2012 (English)In: Journal of engineering technology, ISSN 0747-9964, Vol. 29, no 1, 8-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article describes an improved process model for simulation of the manufacturing process of lime in a rotary kiln. The model simulates ideal behavior of complex chemical systems with an assumed homogenous mixing without time-dependent factors. It is a totally predictive model that excludes the empirical parameters. The model is a chemical phase equilibrium model that calculates the final product in a non-equilibrium mode, according to established methods. The phase chemistry is among the most complex found in the literature for lime manufacturing. The thermodynamic data used in the model is based on 11 components (Ca, Si, Al, Fe, K, S, Cl, C, H, O and N). The fuel has an important role in the lime manufacturing process. Special attention is required since it is fed directly into the process via the burner and can influence the process and final product. In the model, the fuel is defined in order to have it behave in a realistic way, and operational data from a full scale lime plant verify the simulation results. The simulated amounts of gas and solids correlate well with operational data. The predicting chemical composition of the product needs improvement by adding more system components and their related compounds to the thermodynamic database. Simulation results from co-combustion of coal and processed waste based fuel oil that it is a versatile tool for predicting product quality and amount, temperature profiles of the rotary kiln, and exhaust gas composition and amount.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Engineering Education , 2012. Vol. 29, no 1, 8-18 p.
Keyword [en]
Burning process, thermodynamic aspects
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-85999ISI: 000315244400002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-85999DiVA: diva2:696505
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2006-06679Bio4Energy
Available from: 2014-02-14 Created: 2014-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Phase chemistry in process models for cement clinker and lime production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phase chemistry in process models for cement clinker and lime production
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The goal of the thesis is to evaluate if developed phase chemical process models for cement clinker and lime production processes are reliable to use as predictive tools in understanding the changes when introducing sustainability measures.

The thesis describes the development of process simulation models in the application of sustainability measures as well as the evaluation of these models. The motivation for developing these types of models arises from the need to predict the chemical and the process changes in the production process, the impact on the product quality and the emissions from the flue gas.

The main chemical reactions involving the major elements (calcium, silicon, aluminium and iron) are relatively well known. As for the minor elements, such as sodium and potassium metals, sulphur, chlorine, phosphorus and other trace elements, their influence on the main reactions and the formation of clinker minerals is not entirely known. When the concentrations of minor and trace elements increase due to the use of alternative materials and fuels, a model that can accurately predict their chemistry is invaluable. For example, the shift towards using less carbon intensive fuels and more biomass fuels often leads to an increased phosphorus concentration in the products.

One way to commit to sustainable development methods in cement clinker and lime production is to use new combustion technologies, which increase the ability to capture carbon dioxide. Introducing oxy-fuel combustion achieves this, but at the same time, the overall process changes in many other ways. Some of these changes are evaluated by the models in this work.

In this thesis, a combination of the software programs Aspen Plus™ and ChemApp™ constitutes the simulation model. Thermodynamic data from FACT are evaluated and adjusted to suit the chemistry of cement clinker and lime.

The resulting model has been verified for one lime and two cement industrial processes.

Simulated scenarios of co-combustion involving different fuels and different oxy-fuel combustion cases in both cement clinker and lime rotary kiln production are described as well as the influence of greater amounts of phosphorus on the cement clinker quality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2014. 67 p.
Keyword
Process modelling, phase chemistry, cement clinker, lime, sustainability, CO2, energy
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86004 (URN)978-91-7459-801-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-03-14, N420, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 30527-1Bio4Energy
Available from: 2014-02-21 Created: 2014-02-14 Last updated: 2014-02-24Bibliographically approved
2. Sustainability measures in quicklime and cement clinker production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability measures in quicklime and cement clinker production
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis investigates sustainability measures for quicklime and cement clinker production. It is the aim of this thesis to contribute to the effort of creating a more sustainable modus of industrial production.

The methods used comprises process simulations through multicomponent chemical equilibrium calculations, fuel characterization and raw materials characterization through dynamic rate thermogravimetry.

The investigated measures relate to alternative fuels, co-combustion, oxygen enrichment, oxyfuel combustion, mineral carbonation and optimizing raw material mixes based on thermal decomposition characteristics.

The predictive multicomponent chemical equilibrium simulation tool developed has been used to investigate new process designs and combustion concepts. The results show that fuel selection and oxygen enrichment influence energy efficiency, and that oxyfuel combustion and mineral carbonation could allow for considerable emission reductions at low energy penalty, as compared to conventional post-combustion carbon dioxide capture technologies. Dynamic rate thermogravimetry, applied to kiln feed limestone, allows for improved feed analysis with a deeper understanding of how mixing of different feed materials will affect the production processes. The predictive simulation tool has proven to be of practical value when planning and executing production and full scale campaigns, reducing costs related to trial and error.

The main conclusion of this work is that several measures are available to increase the sustainability of the industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2015. 82 p.
Keyword
limestone, quicklime, cement clinker, sustainability, oxygen, carbon dioxide, thermal decomposition, dynamic rate thermogravimetry, predictive multicomponent chemical equilibrium calculations, mineral carbonation
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112842 (URN)978-91-7601-392-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-29, sal N420, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-12-16 Last updated: 2015-12-18Bibliographically approved

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Hökfors, BodilEriksson, MatiasBackman, Rainer

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