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Nya vatten, dunkla speglingar: Industriell kolonialism genom svensk vattenkraftutbyggnad i renskötselområdet 1910-1968
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. (Arcum)
2014 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)Alternative title
New Waters, Reflections of Obscurity : Industrial Colonialism through the Swedish Hydropower Development in the Reindeer Herding Areas 1910-1968 (English)
Abstract [en]

Hydropower development was one of the first systematic large-scale exploitations in the reindeer herding areas within Swedish borders. Therefore, this thesis departs from postcolonial approaches wherein the Swedish state policy and practice towards Sami, reindeer herders and Sápmi, the Sami homeland, is analysed as colonialism in relation to hydropower development.

The study spans over the first large-scale hydropower projects in the reindeer herding area during the 1910’s and 1920’s, continuing with the decreased legal security during the second world war, and finally the opposition and opinion in the 1950’s and 1960’s, enabled by the establishment of a national association for Swedish Sami, SSR.

     The industrialisation of watercourses in the reindeer herding areas were brought about by the works of an institutional framework consisting of the Water Act and the Reindeer Grazing Act together with the tutelage of a Lapp Administration. These institutions made invisible both reindeer herding as an industry and the herders rights. Authorities as well as hydropower companies acted and argued within an industrial colonial discourse. One technique was the re-writing of history and of the herders’ rights in favour of power developers. The Swedish hydropower system was built up based on cheap energy from the North, at the expense of stakeholders’ rights. This was made possible by arguing that exploitation was for the sake of ”the common good”. When reindeer herders eventually were noted in the process, reindeer herding was regarded as a vested interest and reindeer herding rights as a privilege given to the Sami by the state. In this system reindeer herders were given a more vulnerable legal position than farmers, in addition non-reindeer herding Sami were in some aspects even more affected by discriminating structures. By damming the watercourses, the grazing lands were reduced which affected the amount of herders that could practice reindeer husbandry and thereby also the amount of individuals holding Sami rights.

     During the 1950’s and 1960’s the self-evidenced hydropower development was questioned by a Sami struggle for justice. With regards to Sami rights, the situation was more stagnant due to the state avoiding official investigation of certain legal issues that were object for trial. However, the industrial colonial discourse and the governing of hydropower politics were challenged and the authorities changed some of their notions of reindeer herders. Nevertheless, the Sami were denied representation and involvement in governing the finances that were aimed at alleviation of the consequences of various interferences in the herding area.

Abstract

TJOAHKKÁJGÄSOS 

Ådå tjátje, tjáhppis spiejildime. Industridjalasj kolonialissma dáttja tjáhtjefábmobidtjima tjadá boatsojsujttoednamin 1910-1968 

Gå dáttja jávrijt ja änojt dulvvadahtjin de álgij akta dajs vuostasj plánidum stuoráp ekploaterima ma sjaddin ållo sajijn boatsojsujttoednamin Svieriga rájij sinna. Dán diedalasj tjállaga vuodo manná maŋŋekolonialak gähttjamguovlos gånnå Svieriga politijkka ja praktijkka sámij, räjnárij ja Sámeednamij vuosstáj guoradaláduvvi kolonialissman tjáhtjefábmobidtjima gávttuj.

     Åtsådallam álggá daj vuostasj stuoráp bidtjimij boatsojsujttoednamin 1910-lågon, ja joarkká gehtjadimijn lágaj hárráj ma álkkedin tjáhtjefábmobidtjimijt nubbe väráltdoaron. Maŋutjissaj guoradaláduvvi vuossteháhko ja vuojnno ma sjaddin máhttelis 1950- ja 1960-lågojn, iehtjádij siegen gå vuododij rijkkalihtov svieriga sámijda. Gehtjadibme manná 1968 rádjáj ja sämmi jage bådij árvvádallam ådå boatsojäláduslága birra.

     Gå dáttja jávrijt ja änojt dulvvadahtjin boatsojsujttoednamin de tjadáduvvin institutalasj rábmaverkajn tjáhtjelágas, boatsojguohtomlágas ja stáhta boatsojäládusadministrasjåvnå mindárimes, ma vuojnodibmen dahkin boatsojsujtov äládussan ja räjnárij rievtesvuodajt tjáhtjeriektáássijn. Fábmudagá ja bidtjijiddje håladin ja barggin industrikolonialak diskursas gånnå rievtesvuoda ja histårjjå máhttin bånjudallat bidtjijiddjemiellogisvuoda ávkkáj. Håladime tjadá ”álmmuga buoremussan” bidtjiduvvin Svieriga tjáhtjefábmovuogádagá, vuododum hálbes energiddjaj nuorttat ja dassta sjattaj riektálasj ålgustjuolldemin ja unnediddje riektáäjgádin ja miellodiddjen. Dán vuogádagán oadtjun räjnára nievrep riektásajádagáv ednambarggijs, ja sáme boatsojsujto ålggolin nuppástallin ienebut. Dulvvadime unnedin boatsojguohtomednamijt vaj binnáp sáme máhttin boatsojäládusán barggat.

     Sáme riektáoajbbom 1950- ja 1960-lågojn dagáj vaj ulmutja juorrulahtjin jus bidtjima lidjin diehttelis. Sáme rievtesvuoda hárráj de åvdedibme suojmabut manáj gå muhtem riektáássje ettjin guoradaláduvá tjielggidusájn jut lidjin juo duobbmoståvlån. Industrikolonialak diskurssa ja stivrrim tjáhtjefábmopolitijkas hásteduvvin huoman rievddadit muhtemijt sijá vuojnojs boatsojsujto ja räjnárij hárráj. Valla sáddnan la de báhtsin ietjá vuojno mälggadij gå sáme vuornoduvvin saje ja bájnatjibme sámefoanndabiednigij badjel ma galggin ekploaterima vahágijt unnedit.

Översättning: Nils-Olof Sortelius

Abstract

Urre tjaatjieh, tjiellketet vuöjneme. Faamoen vallteme jeänoede tsieekedeme saamien ätneme sisnie 1910-1968.

Aneteme jeänoiheste lih maitie vuosts stuore aneteme guh ussjedemme lih, guh narretih stuore oasieh saamien ätnemeste Ruotsienne. Dahte leh supsteteb guktie tsieekedeme jeätjtatteih saamieh, buutsesaamieh jah saamien ätneme jah Ruotsie faamoen dahkeme jah vihtietit, aj giehtjetdihke mierreteme jeänoih faamoeh.

     Giehtjete allka vuosts stuore tsieekedemeh buutsätnemenne 1910 - 1920 jaapienne jah jorrkeleh giehtjetemeh laagahenne guh tsieekedeme giehpetin muppie ätneme doaroenne. Mahketennie giehtjedihke vuössietietib jah mieletib guh tjuöttjelit 1950 jah 1960 jaapienneh. 1968 urre buutselaagab tjaaledihke.      Tsieekedeme jeänoesne dahkedihke viehketalleh tjaatjielaagaeste buutsegootemelaagaeste jah oajvedemes laapeveäsoemeste. Gautan sjatteih buutsebarrkeme jah buutsebuörie ieh gihtjeih elltie riekte eretvalltedihke. Faamoe jah veäsoke riektesvuote jah autebiejvieih veäsoede jiitjide dahkein. Dah jiehteih tsieekedemeb gaihke allmetjeh hevonemes lin. Gaihke otjoin alpies njuöie saamien ätnemeste jis riektesvuote juhteih faamoesse jah veäsokesse. Buutsebarrkoejaih riektesvuoteh unnebe sjatteih. Tsieekedemeste gaihkeh barrsjeh dahkeih gootemeb unnebe jah dahkeih juhtemin garhtjies sjatteih jah buutsebuörie uhttseteih.

     Saamien doaroe 1950 - 1960 jaapienne viehkieih juoremeb lassanit tsieekedemesne. Saamien riekte bööteih suöjmielaaka auteles. Faamoe jiehteih tsalloe lih lagastoahpoesne guh tsakkesteih. Dah naggatalleme tsieekedejan huoloeme jah jeätjatatteh vuöjnie buutsebarrkoejah jah buutsebarrkoe. Lihkan lik dohkoe ieh buutsebarrkoejah faamoe bietnegenne buutsebarrkoesse vattedihke.

 

Översättning: Kenneth Saarstav och Valborg Wiinka

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2014. , 286 p.
Series
Skrifter från Centrum för samisk forskning, ISSN 1651-5455 ; 19
Keyword [en]
Sami History, Reindeer Husbandry, Hydropower Development, Industrial Colonialism, Governmentality, Discourse Analysis
Keyword [sv]
Samisk historia, Rennäring, Vattenkraftutbyggnad, Industriell kolonialism, Governmentalitet, Diskursanalys
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86040ISBN: 978-91-7459-799-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-86040DiVA: diva2:697690
Public defence
2014-03-14, Norra Beteendevetarhuset, Hörsal 1031, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Anpassningar av naturresursbaserade samhällen till klimat- och samhällsförändringar. Samisk renskötsel i dåtid, nutid och framtid.
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2014-02-20 Created: 2014-02-16 Last updated: 2016-08-19Bibliographically approved

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