The first study on whole human prostate ex vivo using a tactile resonance sensor for cancer detection
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common form of cancer among males in Europe and the USA. A prostatectomy i.e. the removal of the prostate is the most common form of curative treatment. Prostate cancer can be suspected by a blood test for a prostate specific antigen (PSA) and a digital rectal examination (DRE) where a physician palpates the prostate through the rectum and where stiff nodules on the prostate is an indication for PCa. The final diagnosis of PCa is made by microscopic evaluation of ultrasound-guided biopsies taken from suspicious parts of the gland. After a prostatectomy the entire prostate is histopathologically analysed. One area of interest is the superficial part of the prostate gland as tumour growth on the surface suggests that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Tactile resonance sensors can be used to detect areas of different stiffness in soft tissue through a stiffness parameter. It is suggested that tactile resonance sensors can be used to detect prostate cancer since tumours in the human prostate usually is stiffer compared to surrounding healthy glandular tissue.
The aim of the study was to detect tumours on, and beneath the surface, of whole human prostate glands ex vivo using a tactile resonance sensor system (TRSS). Model studies on spherical shaped tissue phantoms made of silicone and porcine tissue were performed to evaluate the ability of the TRSS to detect stiffer volumes at a distance beneath the surface. Finally two resected human prostate glands ex vivo from patients undergoing surgery for prostate cancer were studied.
From the results it was concluded that the clamping force from the rotatable sample holder did not affect the magnitude of the stiffness parameter for the silicone samples. For the porcine muscle samples, the stiffness parameter showed to be affected by clamping forces larger than about 800 mN. The embedded stiff silicone nodules placed about 4 mm under the surface could be detected in both the silicone and biological tissue models with a sensor indentation distance of 0.6 mm. The measurements on resected whole human prostates showed that areas with elevated stiffness parameter values correlated (p < 0.05) with areas where cancer tumours were detected using histolopathological evaluation of the prostate. The tumours were significantly stiffer than the healthy tissue in the dorsal region. This is promising for the development of a clinically useful instrument to detect superficial prostate cancer.
Tissue stiffness, Resonance sensor, Prostate cancer, Piezoelectric, Depth sensitivity, Tactile sensor
Research subject Electronics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86288OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-86288DiVA: diva2:698368