umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Essays on growth and environment
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis consists of a summary and four self-contained papers.

Paper [I] Following the 1987 report by The World Commission on Environment and Development, the genuine saving has come to play a key role in the context of sustainable development, and the World Bank regularly publishes numbers for genuine saving on a national basis. However, these numbers are typically calculated as if the tax system is non-distortionary. This paper presents an analogue to genuine saving in a second best economy, where the government raises revenue by means of distortionary taxation. We show how the social cost of public debt, which depends on the marginal excess burden, ought to be reflected in the genuine saving. We also illustrate by presenting calculations for Greece, Japan, Portugal, U.K., U.S. and OECD average, showing that the numbers published by the World Bank are likely to be biased and may even give incorrect information as to whether the economy is locally sustainable.

Paper [II] This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data spanning the period 1960-2008 for 150 countries. A distinction is also made between OECD and Non-OECD countries to capture the differences of this relationship between developed and developing economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests, and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for Non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bi-directional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries.

Paper [III] Fundamental questions in economics are why some regions are richer than others, why their growth rates differ, whether their growth rates tend to converge, and what key factors contribute to explain economic growth. This paper deals with the average income growth, net migration, and changes in unemployment rates at the municipal level in Sweden. The aim is to explore in depth the effects of possible underlying determinants with a particular focus on local policy variables. The analysis is based on a three-equation model. Our results show, among other things, that increases in the local public expenditure and income taxe rate have negative effects on subsequent income income growth. In addition, the results show conditional convergence, i.e. that the average income among the municipal residents tends to grow more rapidly in relatively poor local jurisdictions than in initially “richer” jurisdictions, conditional on the other explanatory variables.

Paper [IV] This paper explores the relationship between income growth and income inequality using data at the municipal level in Sweden for the period 1992-2007. We estimate a fixed effects panel data growth model, where the within-municipality income inequality is one of the explanatory variables. Different inequality measures (Gini coefficient, top income shares, and measures of inequality in the lower and upper part of the income distribution) are examined. We find a positive and significant relationship between income growth and income inequality measured as the Gini coefficient and top income shares, respectively. In addition, while inequality in the upper part of the income distribution is positively associated with the income growth rate, inequality in the lower part of the income distribution seems to be negatively related to the income growth. Our findings also suggest that increased income inequality enhances growth more in municipalities with a high level of average income than in municipalities with a low level of average income.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå, Sweden: Umeå Universitet , 2014. , 12 p.
Series
Umeå economic studies, ISSN 0348-1018 ; 875
Keyword [en]
genuine saving, welfare change, taxation, per capita GDP, per capita CO2, international trade, net migration, unemployment, growth, inequality.
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86377ISBN: 978-91-7459-533-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-86377DiVA: diva2:698705
Public defence
2014-03-25, Hörsal B, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-03-03 Created: 2014-02-24 Last updated: 2017-05-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Genuine saving and the social cost of taxation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genuine saving and the social cost of taxation
2012 (English)In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 96, no 1-2, 211-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Following the 1987 report by The World Commission on Environment and Development, the genuine saving has come to play a key role in the context of sustainable development, and the World Bank regularly publishes numbers for genuine saving on a national basis. However, these numbers are typically calculated as if the tax system is non-distortionary. This paper presents an analogue to genuine saving in a second best economy, where the government raises revenue by means of distortionary taxation. We show how the social cost of public debt, which depends on the marginal excess burden, ought to be reflected in the genuine saving. By presenting calculations for Greece, Japan, Portugal, U.K., U.S. and OECD average, we also show that the numbers published by the World Bank are likely to be biased and may even give incorrect information as to whether the economy is locally sustainable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
welfare change, investment, saving, taxation
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-47547 (URN)10.1016/j.jpubeco.2011.10.002 (DOI)000299497900018 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2010-1420
Available from: 2011-09-22 Created: 2011-09-22 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. CO2 emissions, GDP and trade: a panel cointegration approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CO2 emissions, GDP and trade: a panel cointegration approach
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 24, no 3, 193-204 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data spanning the period 1960-2008 for 150 countries. A distinction is also made between OECD and non-OECD countries to capture the differences of this relationship between developed and developing economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bidirectional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries.

Keyword
CO2 emissions, GDP, international trade, panel data, panel ECM
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-135246 (URN)10.1080/13504509.2016.1196253 (DOI)000399671900001 ()
Note

Originally published in manuscript form.

Available from: 2017-05-24 Created: 2017-05-24 Last updated: 2017-05-24Bibliographically approved
3. Growth and inequality: a study of Swedish municipalities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth and inequality: a study of Swedish municipalities
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the relationship between the growth rate of the average income and income inequality using data at the municipal level in Sweden for the period 1992-2007. We estimate a fixed effects panel data growth model where the within-municipality income inequality is one of the explanatory variables. Different inequality measures (Gini coefficient, top income shares, and measures of inequality in the lower and upper ends of the income distribution) are also examined. We find a positive and significant relationship between income growth and income inequality, measured as the Gini coefficient and top income shares, respectively. In addition, while inequality at the upper end of the income distribution is positively associated with the income growth rate, inequality at the lower end of the income distribution seems to be negatively related to the growth rate. Our findings also suggest that increased income inequality enhances growth more in municipalities with a high level of average income than in those with a low level of average income.

Keyword
growth, net migration, unemployment, local policy, convergence
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86374 (URN)
Available from: 2014-02-24 Created: 2014-02-24 Last updated: 2014-02-28Bibliographically approved
4. Growth, migration and unemployment across Swedish municipalities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth, migration and unemployment across Swedish municipalities
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fundamental questions in economics are why some regions are richer than others, why their economic growth rates vary, whether their growth tends to converge and the key factors that contribute to the variations. These questions have not yet been fully addressed, but changes in the local tax base are clearly influenced by the average income growth rate, net migration rate, and changes in unemployment rates. Thus, the main aim of this paper is to explore in depth the interactive effects of these factors (and local policy variables) in Swedish municipalities, by estimating a proposed three-equation system. Our main finding is that increases in local public expenditures and income taxes have negative effects on subsequent local income growth. In addition, our results support the conditional convergence hypothesis, i.e. that average income tends to grow more rapidly in relatively poor local jurisdictions than in initially “richer” jurisdictions, conditional on the other explanatory variables.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86373 (URN)
Available from: 2014-02-24 Created: 2014-02-24 Last updated: 2014-02-28Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

spikblad(98 kB)62 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 98 kBChecksum SHA-512
82680bee48569b287da6537b900f2ad94732fba164bfdcfd0f0b1459748185c286a8982988f2a1468a0aad3b98f32ca80b96ae42cd62e50f0937b6b16a20884b
Type spikbladMimetype application/pdf
fulltext(1672 kB)499 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT03.pdfFile size 1672 kBChecksum SHA-512
de79ece46b6adcc51a61307cfe67d9a1ff8002cfa44039fbc9fcebe92aa93c22aaf15934b668030af1fabead86cf74ac0f36038bda8e1b9817d7a01f6010656b
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Cialani, Catia
By organisation
EconomicsCenter for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE)
Economics

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 561 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 676 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf