Intake and macronutrient content in human milk given to extremely preterm infants
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Background: Human milk (HM) is the preferred basis of nutrition for infants, including those born prematurely. Information on macronutrient content in HM is necessary to optimize nutritional support of preterm infants.
Objectives: To describe the types and amounts of enteral feeds given to Swedish extremely preterm infants during hospitalization and to investigate the energy and macronutrient content in HM given to these infants.
Methods: A population-based study of Swedish extremely preterm infants (n=586) born before 27 gestational weeks. Data on ingested volumes of different milks during hospitalization and analyses of macronutrient content in HM samples were obtained from hospital records. Nutritional content of HM was determined by mid-infrared spectrophotometry analysis.
Results: During the first four weeks of life, 99% of the infants were exclusively fed HM and at four weeks of life, 70% of the infants received only mother’s own milk (MOM). Nutritional content in 821 MOM samples were analyzed. Protein content in MOM decreased significantly from 2.2g to 1.2g/100 mL during the first 112 postpartum days, while fat and energy content were highly variable within and between MOM samples. Additionally, 354 samples of donor milk were analyzed. Content of protein, fat and energy in pooled donor milk (n=129) were lower compared to single donor milk.
Conclusions: Swedish extremely preterm infants receive MOM to a large extent during hospitalization. Protein, carbohydrates and energy in MOM changed significantly with time. Weekly analyses of MOM during the first month of lactation would allow a more individualized nutritional support to these vulnerable infants.
Donor milk, Enteral nutrition, Extremely preterm infants, Human milk, Neonatal nutrition, Protein
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject Pediatrics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-88462OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-88462DiVA: diva2:715733