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Optimering av blandning och lagerhållning av avfallsbränsle: Optimering av avfallsbränsleblandning och lagerhållning av importerat avfallsbränsle vid Vattenfalls fjärrvärmeverk i Uppsala
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
2014 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Optimization of Waste Fuel Mix and Storage of Imported Waste Fuel (English)
Abstract [sv]

Fjärrvärmebranschen i Sverige har sedan mitten av 1990-talet varit i en stagnationsfas, där mängden producerad och förbrukad energi i stort sett varit konstant, trots stora investeringar i fjärrvärmenätet. Samtidigt har den höga andelen återvinning gjort att det råder brist på avfallsbränsle till energiåtervinning i Sverige. I kombination med hög konkurrens om avfallsbränslet har detta medfört att aktörerna på marknaden tvingats se sig om efter nya vägar att tillfredsställa behovet av bränsle, vilket lett till att det idag importeras stora mängder avfall för energiåtervinning från utlandet. Vid Vattenfalls fjärrvärmeverk i Uppsala har det mellan åren 2006-2013 återvunnits i snitt drygt 360 000 ton avfall per år. En stor del av detta hämtas in från lokala kunder, både kommuner och privata aktörer, men man har på senare tid även behövt börja importera avfall för att tillfredsställa energibehovet. Vattenfall i Uppsala har valt att framför allt rikta blickarna mot de brittiska öarna, varifrån avfall levereras med fartyg till hamnen i Hargshamn. Anläggningen består av tre förbränningsugnar, block 1, 4 och 5, där block 1 och 4 har en gemensam bunker där avfall förvaras innan förbränning, och den nyare block 5 har en egen bunker. I detta arbete har ett planeringsverktyg skapats i Microsoft Excel. Planeringsverktyget, Fuel Logistics Optimal Planner (FLOP), använder linjärprogrammering för att generera en optimal avfallsblandning som givet ugnarnas effekt maximerar anläggningens intäkter från kunderna. Det ger även svar på frågorna i vilken bunker en given kund ska tippa sitt avfall en given vecka, ger en optimal lagernivå för lagret i Hargshamn, samt information om under vilka veckor båtar med avfall bör anlända hamnen. FLOP stöttar logistikansvarige vid anläggningen i arbetet att skapa en veckoplanering som ligger till grund för hur mycket avfall som ska beställas från de individuella kunderna under nästkommande vecka. En jämförelse mot planeringen och utfallet för 2013 visar att FLOP genererar 2,97 % högre intäkter än den tidigare planeringen, och 0,17 % högre intäkter gentemot det verkliga utfallet för året. Detta trots att en ugn, block 3, togs ur bruk under året och således inte används i FLOP. Under 2013 stod block 3 för ungefär 3,4 % av all förbränning som skedde vid anläggningen.

Abstract [en]

The first district heating-system in Sweden was implemented in the city of Karlstad in 1948 and the favorable environment for this technology lead to a quick expansion that lasted all the way to the mid 1990’s. Since then, however, the industry has stagnated due to climate change, an increase in energy efficient buildings and market saturation. This has led to the need for new strategies for the parties involved with district heating. In Sweden, many of the incinerators used for district heating use waste fuel as the main fuel source. The increased recycling of mainly household waste and the high competition on the waste incineration market has forced the affected parties to look abroad for waste fuel. Vattenfall’s waste incineration plant in Uppsala uses waste fuel and peat as main fuel for the incinerators, and between the years 2006-2013 the average annual amount of waste fuel incinerated amounted to around 360 000 metric tons. There are three incinerators, block 1, 4 and 5, connected to two bunkers storing waste fuel. Blocks 1 and 4 get their fuel from one bunker, and the newer block 5 has its own bunker attached. From the bunkers, the fuel is distributed to the incinerators by an overhead crane. The fuel is brought in from local customers at the customer’s expense for energy recovery. On top of this, Vattenfall also owns a storage facility in Hargshamn, to which it imports waste fuel from customers predominantly from the British Isles. Vattenfall then transports this waste fuel to the incineration plant whenever there is a shortage of fuel from local customers. Today, the logistics manager at the facility receives a yearly plan of all the local, contracted customers with information on how much waste each individual customer should deliver each month of the year. Every week, the logistics manager then breaks down this plan into a weekly plan, before sending out an order to each customer detailing how much waste they are expected to deliver during the subsequent week. The customers then deliver the specified amount of waste and tip it into either of the two bunkers at the facility. If one bunker is being utilized more than the other, the operators of the overhead cranes can signal to the drivers of the waste fuel trucks not to use that bunker for the time being. It is also up to the operators to make sure they feed the incinerators with an appropriate mix of fuel to keep the incinerators operating at a suitable rate. In this work, we have created a planning tool, Fuel Logistics Optimal Planner (FLOP), using Microsoft Excel and the OpenSolver add-in to yield an optimal fuel mix in the respective bunkers in regard to maximizing the overall revenue from the customers. FLOP also presents the user with an optimal storage level of waste fuel at the storage facility in Hargshamn, and informs the logistics manager about which weeks new shipments of waste fuel should arrive at the warehouse. A linear programming model was created to answer these questions. The model is based on the blending problem to get the optimal waste fuel mix to the bunkers, but it has also been influenced by the inventory management problem to make sure the storage level in Hargshamn is optimal. Backtesting FLOP against the planned and actual revenue of 2013 shows that FLOP increases the planned revenue by 2.97 % and surpasses the actual revenue by 0.17 %. During parts of 2013 a fourth incinerator, block 3, was operative at the plant, responsible for about 3.4 % of the total weight of waste incinerated. This incinerator has been omitted in the comparison.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. , 32 p.
Keyword [en]
optimization, linear programming
Keyword [sv]
optimering, linjärprogrammering
National Category
Mathematics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-90521OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-90521DiVA: diva2:728281
External cooperation
Vattenfall Värme Uppsala
Educational program
Master of Science in Engineering and Management
Presentation
2014-06-05, Umeå, 15:15 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2014-06-24 Created: 2014-06-23 Last updated: 2014-06-24Bibliographically approved

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Optimering av blandning och lagerhållning av avfallsbränsle(2220 kB)334 downloads
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