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Evaluation of four ionic liquids for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
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2014 (English)In: BMC Biotechnology, ISSN 1472-6750, E-ISSN 1472-6750, Vol. 14, no 1, 34-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Lignocellulosic biomass is highly recalcitrant and various pretreatment techniques are needed to facilitate its effective enzymatic hydrolysis to produce sugars for further conversion to bio-based chemicals. Ionic liquids (ILs) are of interest in pretreatment because of their potential to dissolve lignocellulosic materials including crystalline cellulose.

RESULTS: Four imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) ([C=C2C1im][MeCO2], [C4C1im][MeCO2], [C4C1im][Cl], and [C4C1im][HSO4]) well known for their capability to dissolve lignocellulosic species were synthesized and then used for pretreatment of substrates prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. In order to achieve a broad evaluation, seven cellulosic, hemicellulosic and lignocellulosic substrates, crystalline as well as amorphous, were selected. The lignocellulosic substrates included hybrid aspen and Norway spruce. The monosaccharides in the enzymatic hydrolysate were determined using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. The best results, as judged by the saccharification efficiency, were achieved with [C4C1im][Cl] for cellulosic substrates and with the acetate-based ILs for hybrid aspen and Norway spruce. After pretreatment with acetate-based ILs, the conversion to glucose of glucan in recalcitrant softwood lignocellulose reached similar levels as obtained with pure crystalline and amorphous cellulosic substrates. IL pretreatment of lignocellulose resulted in sugar yields comparable with that obtained with acidic pretreatment. Heterogeneous dissolution with [C4C1im][HSO4] gave promising results with aspen, the less recalcitrant of the two types of lignocellulose included in the investigation.

CONCLUSIONS: The ability of ILs to dissolve lignocellulosic biomass under gentle conditions and with little or no by-product formation contributes to making them highly interesting alternatives for pretreatment in processes where high product yields are of critical importance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014. Vol. 14, no 1, 34-45 p.
Keyword [en]
Ionic liquid, Pretreatment, Lignocellulose, Enzymatic saccharification
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-90622DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-14-34ISI: 000335990000001PubMedID: 24779378OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-90622DiVA: diva2:729695
Available from: 2014-06-26 Created: 2014-06-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose: formation and effects of pseudolignin
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose: formation and effects of pseudolignin
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Production of advanced biofuels, green chemicals, and bio-based materials from renewable lignocellulosic biomass would contribute to decreased dependence on fossil resources and to sustainable development. The overall aim of the investigations was to explore how preprocessing and pretreatment technologies affected the chemical composition of cellulosic materials and their susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification, which is one of the major routes for biorefining of lignocellulose. Special attention was given to formation and effects of pseudolignin, an aromatic substance derived from polysaccharides. Pseudolignin is formed during dry thermal preprocessing, such as torrefaction, and during dilute-acid pretreatment, techniques that are highly relevant for biorefining of wood.

The susceptibility of seven fractions of Scots pine to dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification was investigated. Harsh pretreatment conditions led to slow initial conversion, which was tentatively attributed to pseudolignin. Pretreatment with ionic liquids was investigated using substrates consisting of crystalline and amorphous cellulose, hemicelluloses, and wood. The susceptibility of torrefied spruce wood to enzymatic saccharification after pretreatment with acid or ionic liquid was investigated. The results showed that the negative effects of mild torrefaction on enzymatic saccharification were possible to overcome using pretreatment with the ionic liquid. In a subsequent study, the possibility to dissolve pseudolignin with ionic liquids and conventional solvents was explored. The effects of pseudolignin on wood polysaccharides and enzymatic saccharification were further studied using NMR, FTIR, XPS, TOF-SIMS, and SEM. The surface-sensitive analytical methods TOF-SIMS, XPS, and SEM revealed how pseudolignin formed a coat on the surface of the polysaccharide, which could explain the effects on the enzymatic saccharification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2016. 67 p.
Keyword
Pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, ionic liquid, torrefaction, pseudolignin
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126463 (URN)978-91-7601-575-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-10-28, KB3B1, KBC-huset, Linnaeus väg 6, 907 36, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
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Available from: 2016-10-07 Created: 2016-10-06 Last updated: 2016-10-07Bibliographically approved

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Gräsvik, JohnWinestrand, SandraNormark, MonicaJönsson, LeifMikkola, Jyri-Pekka

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