Outer Membrane Remodeling: The Structural Dynamics and Electrostatics of Rough Lipopolysaccharide Chemotypes
2014 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, ISSN 1549-9618, E-ISSN 1549-9626, Vol. 10, no 6, 2488-2497 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the primary constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram-negative bacteria can synthesize modified forms of LPS in response to environmental stimuli or due to genetic mutations, a process known as outer membrane remodeling. Chemical modifications of the LPS modulate the integrity and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial outer membranes. It also governs microbial adhesion to tissues and artificial material surfaces. We have extended a previous model of the rough LPS to include four novel chemotypes rmlC, galU, LPS Re, and Lipid-A. Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for outer membrane models constituted of each LPS chemotypes and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-phosphatidylethanolamine. It is shown that the decrease in the LPS polysaccharide chain length leads to a significant increase in the diffusion coefficients for the Ca2+ counterions, increase in acyl chain packing (decrease in membrane fluidity), and attenuation of the negative potential across the LPS surface as positive counterions becomes more exposed to the solvent. The electrostatic potential on the LPS surfaces reflects heterogeneous charge distributions with increasingly larger patches of positive and negative potentials as the polysaccharide chain length decreases. Such a pattern originates from the spatial arrangement of charged phosphate-Ca2+ clusters in the LPS inner-core that becomes exposed in the membrane surface as monosaccharide units are lost in the shortest chemotypes LPS Re and Lipid-A. These MD-derived conformational ensembles reproduce experimental trends and provide atom-level structural information on the rough LPS chemotypes that can help to rationalize antibiotic resistance and bacterial adhesion processes.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 10, no 6, 2488-2497 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-91146DOI: 10.1021/ct500075hISI: 000337199300028OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-91146DiVA: diva2:734410
FunderSwedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC)