Toxicity and accumulation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its metabolites in atlantic salmon alevins exposed to an industrially polluted water
2014 (English)In: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, ISSN 1528-7394, E-ISSN 1087-2620, Vol. 77, no 19, 1183-1191 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
A pond in an industrial area in Sweden was selected to study adverse effects on salmon alevins from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated water. Chemical screening revealed heavy contamination of TNT and its degradation products, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), ranging from 0.05 to 230 g/kg in the sediment (dry weight) within the water system. Pond water contained 3 mg/L TNT. A dilution series of pond water mixed with tap water revealed increased death frequency in alevins down to fivefold dilution (approximate 0.4 mg TNT/L). Uptake was concentration dependent, reaching 7, 9, and 22 μg/g tissue for TNT, 2-ADNT, and 4-ADNT at the highest test concentration. A time-dependent uptake of TNT and its degradation products was found at a water concentration of 0.08 mg TNT/L. Degradation products of TNT showed a more efficient uptake compared to native TNT, and accumulation of 4-ADNT was more pronounced during the late phase of the 40-d exposure study. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) (0.34, 52, and 134 ml/g for TNT, 2-ADNT, and 4-ADNT, respectively) demonstrated a significant uptake of the metabolite 4-ADNT in alevin tissue. Disturbed physiological conditions and delayed development in alevins were not studied, but may not be excluded even at 125-fold diluted pond water (0.016 mg TNT/L). BCF data indicated that bioaccumulation of TNT metabolites need to be considered in TNT chronic toxicity. Fish species and age differences in the accumulation of TNT metabolites need to be further studied.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2014. Vol. 77, no 19, 1183-1191 p.
Environmental Sciences Environmental Health and Occupational Health Pharmacology and Toxicology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-91956DOI: 10.1080/15287394.2014.920756ISI: 000341502300005PubMedID: 25119739OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-91956DiVA: diva2:738654