Doppler broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry: optimum modulation and demodulation conditions, cavity length, and modulation order
2014 (English)In: Journal of the Optical Society of America. B, Optical physics, ISSN 0740-3224, E-ISSN 1520-8540, Vol. 31, no 9, 2051-2060 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Doppler broadened noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (Db-NICE-OHMS) has been scrutinized with respect to modulation and demodulation conditions (encompassing the modulation frequency,nu(m), the modulation index, beta, and the detection phase, theta), the cavity length, L, and the modulation order, k (defined as nu(m)/nu(FSR), where nu(FSR) is the free-spectral range of the cavity), primarily in the Doppler limit but also for two specific situations in the Voigt regime (for equal Doppler and homogeneous width and for purely Lorentzian broadened transitions), both in the absence and presence of optical saturation (the latter for the case in which the homogeneous broadening is smaller than the modulation frequency). It is found that, for a system with a given cavity length, the optimum conditions (i.e., those that produce the largest NICE-OHMS signal) for an unsaturated transition in the Doppler limit comprise nu(m)/Gamma(D) = 1.6 (where Gamma(D) is the half-width at half-maximum of the Doppler width of the transition), beta = 1.3, and theta = 0.78 pi. It is also found that the maximum is rather broad; the signal takes 95% of its maximum value for modulation frequencies in the entire 0.4 less than or similar to nu(m)/Gamma(D) less than or similar to 2.4 range. When optical saturation sets in, theta shifts toward the dispersion phase. The optimum conditions encompass k > 1 whenever L > 0.35L(D) and 2.6L(D) for the dispersion and absorption modes of detection, respectively [where L-D is a characteristic length given by c/(2 Gamma(D))]. Similar conditions are found under pressure broadened conditions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Optical Society of America , 2014. Vol. 31, no 9, 2051-2060 p.
(120.6200) Spectrometers and spectroscopic instrumentation; (140.3518) Lasers, frequency
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Research subject Physics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-92499DOI: 10.1364/JOSAB.31.002051ISI: 000343242700006PubMedID: 19547439OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-92499DiVA: diva2:741062