Inhibition of Endocannabinoid Metabolism by the Metabolites of Ibuprofen and Flurbiprofen
2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 7, e103589- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background: In addition to their effects upon prostaglandin synthesis, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and flurbiprofen inhibit the metabolism of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), respectively. Here, we investigated whether these effects upon endocannabinoid metabolism are shared by the main metabolites of ibuprofen and flurbiprofen. Methodology/Principal Findings:COX activities were measured via changes in oxygen consumption due to oxygenation of arachidonic acid (for COX-1) and arachidonic acid and 2-AG (for COX-2). FAAH activity was quantified by measuring hydrolysis of tritium labelled AEA in rat brain homogenates. The ability of ibuprofen and flurbiprofen to inhibit COX-2-catalysed oxygenation of 2-AG at lower concentrations than the oxygenation of arachidonic acid was seen with 4'-hydroxyflurbiprofen and possibly also 3'-hydroxyibuprofen, albeit at lower potencies than the parent compounds. All ibuprofen and flurbiprofen metabolites retained the ability to inhibit FAAH in a pH-dependent manner, although the potency was lower than seen with the parent compounds. Conclusions/Significance: It is concluded that the primary metabolites of ibuprofen and flurbiprofen retain some of the properties of the parent compound with respect to inhibition of endocannabinoid metabolism. However, these effects are unlikely to contribute to the actions of the parent compounds in vivo.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PLOS , 2014. Vol. 9, no 7, e103589- p.
Pharmacology and Toxicology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-92945DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103589ISI: 000339992600087OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-92945DiVA: diva2:747359