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Changes in Perceived Autonomy Support, Need Satisfaction, Motivation, and Well-Being in Young Elite Athletes
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Göteborgs Universitet.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
2015 (English)In: Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, ISSN 2157-3905, Vol. 4, no 1, 50-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A 4-stage motivational sequence was investigated, in line with self-determination theory (perceived autonomy support from the coach → need satisfaction → motivation → psychological well-being). More specifically, we examined level–change associations and relations between intraindividual changes in these variables over the course of an athletic season. Young elite skiers (109 females, 138 males) enrolled at sport high schools in Sweden responded to questionnaires assessing perceived autonomy support from the coach, need satisfaction, motivation, and psychological well-being at 2 time points separated by approximately 5 months. A latent difference score model were used to analyze the data. Initial level of need satisfaction at Time 1 negatively predicted change in perceived autonomy support, motivation, and well-being, and initial level of motivation at Time 1 positively predicted change in perceived autonomy support and change in well-being. Correlations between intraindividual changes in the study variables were estimated and the variables were all positively correlated. These results indicate that the relations between these variables are complex, dynamic, and that more attention should be given to potential reciprocal effects between the variables in this motivational sequence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 4, no 1, 50-61 p.
Keyword [en]
intraindividual change, interpersonal environment, basic psychological needs, motivation, health
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-93441DOI: 10.1037/spy0000027ISI: 000356672200005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-93441DiVA: diva2:748859
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, P2011-0177
Available from: 2014-09-22 Created: 2014-09-22 Last updated: 2016-10-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sports coaches’ interpersonal motivating styles: longitudinal associations, change, and multidimensionality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sports coaches’ interpersonal motivating styles: longitudinal associations, change, and multidimensionality
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Ett motiverande ledarskap : multidimensionalitet och longitudinella samband med idrottares motivation och välbefinnande
Abstract [en]

Coaches play a central role in shaping the sport environment for young athletes. This thesis is focused on the leadership process in sports and how coaches’ autonomy-supportive and controlling interpersonal styles longitudinally are related to young athletes’ motivation and ill- and well-being. The aim is also to examine psychometric multidimensionality in measures of coaches’ need-supportive and controlling interpersonal styles. Questionnaire data from young athletes were used in the empirical studies. In Study 1, we examined an adaptive motivational process (i.e., longitudinal associations between autonomy support, need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and well-being). The results showed that within-person changes in perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and well-being were all positively correlated. Higher self-determined motivation and well-being early in the season longitudinally predicted higher levels of perceived autonomy support from the coach. Higher self-determined motivation was also a positive predictor of within-person changes in perceived autonomy support and well-being over the season. In Study 2, we examined a maladaptive motivational process (i.e., longitudinal associations between coaches’ controlling behaviors, controlled motivation, and ill-being). The findings demonstrated that athletes who perceived their coach as more controlling reported higher controlled motivation at the end of the season and that higher controlled motivation early in the season predicted higher ill-being at the end of the season. Controlled motivation was also a positive predictor of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ controlling behaviors at the within-person level. Study 1 and 2 suggest that individual factors (e.g., motivation and well-being) seemed to function as important determinants of how athletes perceived their coach and future research should explore the underlying mechanisms through which these processes occur. In Study 3, we examined psychometric multidimensionality in measures of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ need-supportive (Interpersonal Supportiveness Scale-Coach [ISS-C]) and controlling (Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale [CCBS]) interpersonal styles. The analyses indicated that the ISS-C is not multidimensional; it appears to comprise a single factor. Three of the four subscales of the CCBS appear to share a common core, whereas the fourth subscale (i.e., controlling use of rewards) seems to represent a slightly different aspect of a controlling interpersonal style. These results bring into question the multidimensionality in measures of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ interpersonal styles. Neither measure displayed a coherent multidimensional pattern, indicating a need for better alignment between theory and measurement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016. 105 p.
Keyword
athletes, change, leadership, motivation, multidimensionality, psychological health, self-determination theory, sports, structural equation modeling
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126380 (URN)978-91-7601-565-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-10-28, Hörsal F, Humanisthuset, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-10-06 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-05-26Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
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