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Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub-techniques predicts sprint performance in elite male cross-country skiers
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Department of Health and Social Sciences, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden. Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden..
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Department of Health and Social Sciences, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden. Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden..
Department of Health and Social Sciences, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden. Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden..
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Winternet, Boden, Sweden. (Arcum)
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2014 (English)In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 12, 2587-2595 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between sprint-prologue performance (using the classical technique) and the oxygen uptake at the lactate threshold (V̇O2obla), maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and mean oxygen uptake during double poling (V̇O2dp).

METHODS: Eight elite male cross-country skiers [age 24.8 ± 4.8 years, (mean ± SD)] completed two treadmill roller-skiing tests using the diagonal-stride technique and a 60 s double-poling test on a ski-ergometer to determine their V̇O2obla, V̇O2max, and V̇O2dp. Performance data were generated from a 1.25 km sprint prologue. Power-function modelling was used to predict the skiers' race speeds based on the oxygen-uptake variables and body mass.

RESULTS: There were correlations between the race speed and the absolute expression of the V̇O2obla (r = 0.79, P = 0.021), V̇O2max (r = 0.86, P = 0.0069), and V̇O2dp (r = 0.94, P = 0.00062). The following power-function models were established for race-speed prediction: 1.09 · V̇O2obla(0.21), 1.05 · V̇O2max(0.21), and 1.19 · V̇O2dp(0.20); these models explained 60 % (P = 0.024), 73 % (P = 0.0073), and 87 % (P = 0.00073), respectively, of the variance in the race speed. However, body mass did not contribute to any of the models (P = 0.97, 0.88, and 0.21, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Oxygen uptake at different intensities and sub-techniques is an indicator of elite male sprint-prologue performance. The absolute expression of the investigated oxygen-uptake variables should be used when evaluating elite male sprint-prologue performances; if skiers oxygen uptake differs by 1 %, their performances will likely differ by 0.2 % in favour of the skier with higher oxygen uptake.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014. Vol. 114, no 12, 2587-2595 p.
Keyword [en]
double poling, sprint skiing, scaling, V̇O2max, lactate threshold
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-95074DOI: 10.1007/s00421-014-2980-0ISI: 000344740500014PubMedID: 25138966OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-95074DiVA: diva2:757261
Available from: 2014-10-21 Created: 2014-10-21 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The importance of body-mass exponent optimization for evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of body-mass exponent optimization for evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction Performance in cross-country skiing is influenced by the skier’s ability to continuously produce propelling forces and force magnitude in relation to the net external forces. A surrogate indicator of the “power supply” in cross-country skiing would be a physiological variable that reflects an important performance-related capability, whereas the body mass itself is an indicator of the “power demand” experienced by the skier. To adequately evaluate an elite skier’s performance capability, it is essential to establish the optimal ratio between the physiological variable and body mass. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the importance of body-mass exponent optimization for the evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing.

Methods In total, 83 elite cross-country skiers (56 men and 27 women) volunteered to participate in the four studies. The physiological variables of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and oxygen uptake corresponding to a blood-lactate concentration of 4 mmol∙l-1 (V̇O2obla) were determined while treadmill roller skiing using the diagonal-stride technique; mean oxygen uptake (V̇O2dp) and upper-body power output () were determined during double-poling tests using a ski-ergometer. Competitive performance data for elite male skiers were collected from two 15-km classical-technique skiing competitions and a 1.25-km sprint prologue; additionally, a 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trial using the double-poling technique was used as an indicator of upper-body performance capability among elite male and female junior skiers. Power-function modelling was used to explain the race and time-trial speeds based on the physiological variables and body mass.

Results The optimal V̇O2max-to-mass ratios to explain 15-km race speed were V̇O2max divided by body mass raised to the 0.48 and 0.53 power, and these models explained 68% and 69% of the variance in mean skiing speed, respectively; moreover, the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the body-mass exponents did not include either 0 or 1. For the modelling of race speed in the sprint prologue, body mass failed to contribute to the models based on V̇O2max, V̇O2obla, and V̇O2dp. The upper-body power output-to-body mass ratio that optimally explained time-trial speed was m-0.57 and the model explained 63% of the variance in speed.

Conclusions The results in this thesis suggest that V̇O2max divided by the square root of body mass should be used as an indicator of performance in 15-km classical-technique races among elite male skiers rather than the absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression. To optimally explain an elite male skier’s performance capability in sprint prologues, power-function models based on oxygen-uptake variables expressed absolutely are recommended. Moreover, to evaluate elite junior skiers’ performance capabilities in 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trials, it is recommended that divided by the square root of body mass should be used rather than absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression of power output.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2015. 58 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1712
Keyword
allometric scaling, power-function modelling, maximal oxygen uptake, body mass, elite skiers, distance skiing, lactate threshold, double poling, sprint skiing, competition, power output, time trial
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102872 (URN)978-91-7601-270-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-05, Föreläsningssal 6, Högskolegatan 2, 791 88, Falun, 14:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Incorrect ISBN in printed thesis: 973-91-7601-270-3

Available from: 2015-05-13 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2015-06-30Bibliographically approved
2. Physiological demands of competitive elite cross-country skiing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physiological demands of competitive elite cross-country skiing
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction Researchers have, for decades, contributed to an increased collective understanding of the physiological demands in cross-country skiing; however, almost all of these studies have used either non-elite subjects and/or performances that emulate cross-country skiing. To establish the physiological demands of cross-country skiing, it is important to relate the investigated physiological variables to the competitive performance of elite skiers. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was, therefore, to investigate the external validity of physiological test variables to determine the physiological demands in competitive elite cross-country skiing.

Methods The subjects in Study I – IV were elite male (I – III) and female (III – IV) cross-country skiers. In all studies, the relationship between test variables (general and ski-specific) and competitive performances (i.e. the results from competitions or the overall ski-ranking points of the International Ski Federation (FIS) for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races) were analysed. Test variables reflecting the subject’s general strength, upper-body and whole-body oxygen uptake, oxygen uptake and work intensity at the lactate threshold, mean upper-body power, lean mass, and maximal double-poling speed were investigated.

Results The ability to maintain a high work rate without accumulating lactate is an indicator of distance performance, independent of sex (I, IV). Independent of sex, high oxygen uptake in whole-body and upper-body exercise was important for both sprint (II, IV) and distance (I, IV) performance. The maximal double-poling speed and 60-s double-poling mean power output were indicators of sprint (IV) and distance performance (I), respectively. Lean mass was correlated with distance performance for women (III), whereas correlations were found between lean mass and sprint performance among both male and female skiers (III). Moreover, no correlations between distance performance and test variables were derived from tests of knee-extension peak torque, vertical jumps, or double poling on a ski-ergometer with 20-s and 360-s durations (I), whereas gross efficiency while treadmill roller skiing showed no correlation with either distance or sprint performance in cross-country skiing (IV).

Conclusion The results in this thesis show that, depending on discipline and sex, maximal and peak oxygen uptake, work intensity at the lactate threshold, lean mass, double-poling mean power output, and double-poling maximal speed are all externally valid physiological test variables for evaluation of performance capability among elite cross-country skiers; however, to optimally indicate performance capability different test-variable expressions should be used; in general, the absolute expression appears to be a better indicator of competitive sprint performance whereas the influence of body mass should be considered when evaluating competitive distance performance capability of elite cross-country skiers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2015. 46 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1713
Keyword
Performance capability, maximal oxygen uptake, lactate threshold, lean mass, double poling, power output, maximal speed, sprint skiing, distance skiing.
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102878 (URN)978-91-7601-269-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-05, Föreläsningssal 6, Högskolegatan 2, 79188, Falun, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-13 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2015-06-30Bibliographically approved

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