2015 (Swedish)In: Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals: Vol. 2: Specific metals / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg, Bruce A. Fowler, Monica Nordberg, Academic Press, 2015, 4, 1297-1306 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
In animal models, almost half of an ingested dose of tungsten in the form of a soluble salt and a third of a deposited inhaled aerosol of tungstic oxide were reported to be rapidly absorbed. Most of the absorbed tungsten was rapidly excreted in the urine. Part of the small amount of retained tungsten was transferred from the plasma to red blood cells and distributed mainly to the spleen, kidney, and bone. About 3 months after ingestion and 6 months after inhalation, the largest proportion of the body burden of tungsten was found in bone, although this was only a very small part of the administered dose. The metabolism of tungsten is related to that of molybdenum, which it closely resembles in chemical properties. A reliable biokinetic model for tungsten in humans is required. Little is known about the toxicity of tungsten compounds, although the median lethal dose of soluble salts is relatively high in the rat. Following occupational exposure to tungsten carbide dust by inhalation, cases of pulmonary fibrosis have been reported, but this hard metal disease, as it is often called, is more likely to be caused by cobalt, with which tungsten carbide is fused. Recent studies have shown a risk of cancer induction following exposure to heavy metal tungsten alloys, which requires further investigation. Apart from occupational sources, small quantities of tungsten are present in food and water; trace quantities, related to industrial emissions, have been found in the general atmosphere. Tungsten is also present in trace amounts in human serum and in urine and feces, with elimination approximately balancing intake of the metal in the few nonindustrially exposed subjects studied. Data on the biological effects of tungsten is sparse. Industrial, medical, and military uses of tungsten have been expanding rapidly; therefore, the potential for tungsten spreading into the environment is rapidly increasing.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2015, 4. 1297-1306 p.
tungsten, wolfram, green bullet, nanoparticles, interaction, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, iron, hard metal disease, tumorigenic
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-95921DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59453-2.00058-5ISBN: 9780123982933OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-95921DiVA: diva2:761590