Transfer in mathematical learning: a comparison study of elementary school children in an educational context
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Several studies in cognitive psychology have shown that repeated testing enhances learning, a phenomenon called the testing effect. The aim with the present study was to investigate the encoding variability hypothesis in relation to both practiced and transfer mathematical tasks in a sample of fifth-grade children. Learning was assessed immediately after practice, 3-days, and five weeks after initial learning. Encoding variability was manipulated by re-formulate some of the questions in one group (Variable-Test group), versus keeping them constant in a second group (Same-Test group), but with the same amount of total practice for both groups. The results gave support for the encoding variability hypothesis with regard to transfer tasks, but only at the immediate test. At the delayed tests, the encoding variability hypothesis was disclaimed. Clickers were used during both the learning phase and the following tests. Individual differences in working memory capacity predicted performance on the transfer tasks, but only at the immediate test, regardless of group.
test-enhanced learning, transfer, clickers, mental arithmetic, number understanding, working memory capacity
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96390OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-96390DiVA: diva2:764430