Maintenance of Training Gains and Near Transfer Effects in Young and Old Adults: an 18-Month Follow-up of Executive Process Training
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Objective: Prior studies have examined the magnitude of training and transfer effects after process-based training in early and late adulthood. However, little is known about how long-lasting these effects are. Here we investigated the degree of stability of training gains and transfer effects in younger and older adults 18 months after completion of executive process training, tapping updating, inhibition, and shifting. Method: From the original sample, 24 out of 30 older participants, and 19 out of 29 young adults, returned for follow-up assessment at which the criterion and transfer tests from pre- and posttest were re-administered. Results: The results demonstrated stability of training gains in the updating criterion task (letter memory running span), and in a near transfer updating task (number memory running span) for both age groups. The young adults improved performance in two complex working memory tasks immediately after training. These transfer effects did not survive across time. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that executive process training has its greatest effect on transfer tasks with a substantial process overlap with the trained tasks: only those effects are maintained over an 18 month period in both early and late adulthood.
cognitive training, executive functions, long-term effects, executive functions, working memory, updating, shifting, inhibition
Research subject Psychology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96714OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-96714DiVA: diva2:766550
FunderForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare