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Virtual Holonomic Constraints: from academic to industrial applications
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. (Robotics & Control Lab)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6306-0455
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Whether it is a car, a mobile phone, or a computer, we are noticing how automation and production with robots plays an important role in the industry of our modern world. We find it in factories, manufacturing products, automotive cruise control, construction equipment, autopilot on airplanes, and countless other industrial applications.

        Automation technology can vary greatly depending on the field of application. On one end, we have systems that are operated by the user and rely fully on human ability. Examples of these are heavy-mobile equipment, remote controlled systems, helicopters, and many more. On the other end, we have autonomous systems that are able to make algorithmic decisions independently of the user.

        Society has always envisioned robots with the full capabilities of humans. However, we should envision applications that will help us increase productivity and improve our quality of life through human-robot collaboration. The questions we should be asking are: “What tasks should be automated?'', and “How can we combine the best of both humans and automation?”. This thinking leads to the idea of developing systems with some level of autonomy, where the intelligence is shared between the user and the system. Reasonably, the computerized intelligence and decision making would be designed according to mathematical algorithms and control rules.

        This thesis considers these topics and shows the importance of fundamental mathematics and control design to develop automated systems that can execute desired tasks. All of this work is based on some of the most modern concepts in the subjects of robotics and control, which are synthesized by a method known as the Virtual Holonomic Constraints Approach. This method has been useful to tackle some of the most complex problems of nonlinear control, and has enabled the possibility to approach challenging academic and industrial problems. This thesis shows concepts of system modeling, control design, motion analysis, motion planning, and many other interesting subjects, which can be treated effectively through analytical methods. The use of mathematical approaches allows performing computer simulations that also lead to direct practical implementations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2015. , 57 p.
Series
Robotics and control lab, ISSN 1654-5419 ; 7
Keyword [en]
Virtual Holonomic Constraints, modeling, control, motion planning, under-actuated systems, forestry cranes, hydraulic manipulators
National Category
Control Engineering Robotics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87707ISBN: 978-91-7601-196-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-87707DiVA: diva2:777196
Public defence
2015-02-02, MA121, MIT-Huset, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-01-12 Created: 2014-04-07 Last updated: 2015-01-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Generating Periodic Motions for the Butterfly Robot
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generating Periodic Motions for the Butterfly Robot
2013 (English)In: Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2013 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on / [ed] Amato, N., IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 2527-2532 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We analyze the problem of dynamic non-prehensile manipulation by considering the example of thebutterfly robot. Our main objective is to study the problem of stabilizing periodic motions, which resemble some form of juggling acrobatics. To this end, we approach the problem by considering theframework of virtual holonomic constraints. Under this basis, we provide an analytical and systematic solution to the problems of trajectory planning and design of feedback controllers to guarantee orbital exponential stability. Results are presented in the form of simulation tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
Series
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, ISSN 2153-0858
Keyword
Underactuated mechanical systems, limit cycles, virtual holonomic constraints, transverse linearization
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86210 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2013.6696712 (DOI)000331367402100 ()978-1-4673-6358-7 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) Location: Tokyo, Japan Date: Nov 3-8, 2013
Available from: 2014-02-20 Created: 2014-02-20 Last updated: 2016-02-15Bibliographically approved
2. Design of energy efficient walking gaits for a three-link planar biped walker with two unactuated degrees of freedom
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of energy efficient walking gaits for a three-link planar biped walker with two unactuated degrees of freedom
2012 (English)In: Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, New York: IEEE Computer Society, 2012, 148-153 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We consider the example of a three-link planar biped walker with two passive links. The main objective is to design symmetric periodic gaits in flat ground, that can be exponentially stabilized by feedback control. To this end, we apply recent advances in nonlinear control, to propose a systematic procedure to the problems of gait synthesis and control design. The core of the method lays on a nontrivial coordinate transformation, in order to approach the problem in a state-dependent form. For gait synthesis, such procedure allows a reduction of the search space, with the feasibility of considering energetic performance for optimization. For control design, this allows to apply concepts of transverse linearization, to design a nonlinear feedback control law, which performance is studied by numerical simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE Computer Society, 2012
Series
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ISSN 2152-4092
Keyword
Walking robots, underactuated mechanical systems, limit cycles, virtual holonomic constraints, transverse linearization
National Category
Computer Science Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-61582 (URN)10.1109/ICRA.2012.6224874 (DOI)000309406700023 ()978-1-4673-1405-3 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Location: St Paul, MN, Date: May 14-18, 2012
Available from: 2012-11-27 Created: 2012-11-20 Last updated: 2016-02-15Bibliographically approved
3. Non-linear dynamics modelling description for simulating the behavior of forestry cranes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-linear dynamics modelling description for simulating the behavior of forestry cranes
2014 (English)In: International journal of Modeling, identification and control, ISSN 1746-6172, E-ISSN 1746-6180, Vol. 21, no 2, 125-138 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Model-based design is a standard framework widely adopted in modern industry. It is used for designing multi-domain engineering solutions based on computer-aided simulation technology. Currently, this approach is also being viewed as a tentative method for designing modern heavy-duty machine technology. Under this motivation, our aim is to present how modeling techniques can be used for simulating dynamics of forestry machines. To this end, we consider a forestry crane, and propose mathematical models and calibration techniques, such that model-based methods can subsequently be applied. The complexity of the machine is represented by first principle laws, in which the mechanical system is modeled by Euler-Lagrange formulations, and the hydraulic system is modeled by principles of fluid dynamics. The calibration algorithms are performed by statistical algorithms based on linear and nonlinear least-squares methods. The results of simulation show a significant correspondence between the simulated and observed variables, validating our procedures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, 2014
Keyword
forestry machines, forestry cranes, hydraulic manipulators, dynamic modelling, model calibration, identification, simulation, real–time implementation, nonlinear dynamics, heavy–duty machinery, mathematical modelling, Euler–Lagrange formulations, fluid dynamics
National Category
Control Engineering Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87577 (URN)10.1504/IJMIC.2014.060006 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-04-04 Created: 2014-04-04 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Designing and testing control systems for forestry cranes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing and testing control systems for forestry cranes
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Motivated by the interest, and in collaboration of forestry machine manufacturers, a number of motion control algorithms have been designed, implemented, and tested in a forwarder crane. The aim has been to achieve the robust tracking of reference link motion trajectories based on sensory feedback coming from pressure and angular displacement sensors mounted in the manipulator. To this end, a procedure employing computer aided model-based methods and simulation technology have been suggested, in order to produce systematical tools for model analysis, tuning of controllers, and rapid prototyping for hardware-in-the-loop testing. The controllers derived have the objective to form the background of a new generation of crane control modes, which will be subsequently designed by the use of different motion planning techniques. We present results of experimental studies carried out on a medium-size crane, which has been properly equipped for the task of rapid-prototyping.

National Category
Control Engineering Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87579 (URN)
Available from: 2014-04-04 Created: 2014-04-04 Last updated: 2017-03-27Bibliographically approved
5. Increasing the level of automation in the forestry logging process with crane trajectory planning and control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increasing the level of automation in the forestry logging process with crane trajectory planning and control
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Journal of Field Robotics, ISSN 1556-4959, E-ISSN 1556-4967, Vol. 31, no 3, 343-363 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Working with forestry machines requires great amount of training to be sufficiently skilledto operate forestry cranes. In view of this, introducing automated motions, as those seenin robotic arms, is ambitioned by this industry for shortening the amount of training timeand make the work of the operator easier. Motivated by this fact, we have developedtwo experimental platforms for testing control systems and motion planning algorithms inreal-time. They correspond to a laboratory setup and a commercial version of a hydraulicmanipulator used in forwarder machines. The aim of this article is to present the results ofthis development by providing an overview of our trajectory planning algorithm and motioncontrol method, with a subsequent view of the experimental results. For motion control,we design feedback controllers that are able to track reference trajectories based on sensormeasurements. Likewise, we provide arguments to design controllers in open-loop for thecase of machines lacking of sensing devices. Relying on the tracking efficiency of thesecontrollers, we design time efficient reference trajectories of motions that correspond tologging tasks. To demonstrate performance, we provide an overview of an extensive testingdone on these machines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2014
Keyword
tree harvesting systems; robotic manipulators; excavator; industrialization
National Category
Robotics Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86214 (URN)10.1002/rob.21496 (DOI)000333934200001 ()
Available from: 2014-04-04 Created: 2014-02-20 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
6. Path-constrained motion analysis: an algorithm to understand human performance on hydraulic manipulators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Path-constrained motion analysis: an algorithm to understand human performance on hydraulic manipulators
Show others...
2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, ISSN 2168-2291, Vol. 45, no 2, 187-199 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose a novel method to analyze how human operators use hydraulic manipulators of heavy-duty equipment. The approach is novel in the sense that it applies knowledge of motion planning and optimization techniques used in robotics. As an example, we consider the case of operating a forestry crane. To that end, we use motion data that has been recorded during standard operation with the help of sensors and a data acquisition unit. The data backs up the notion that operators work by performing repeatable patterns observed in the trajectories of the manipulator's joints. We show how this nominal behavior is computed, and consequently this allow us to present the following: 1) an analytical procedure to analyze motions, 2) how to represent the "performance" of the operator in a 2D plot, 3) an example of how to use this information to suggest customized control settings, and 4) some complementary ideas needed for improving efficiency through automation.

Keyword
forestry, human performance analysis, hydraulic manipulators, manual control
National Category
Robotics Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87595 (URN)10.1109/THMS.2014.2366873 (DOI)000351468500004 ()
Available from: 2014-04-04 Created: 2014-04-04 Last updated: 2016-02-15Bibliographically approved

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