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The Use of Phytometers for Evaluating Restoration Effects on Riparian Soil Fertility
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. (Landskapsekologi)
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. (Landskapsekologi ; Arcum)
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. (Landskapsekologi ; Arcum)
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. (Landskapsekologi ; Arcum)
2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 43, nr 6, s. 1916-1925Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The ecological restoration of streams in Sweden has become increasingly important to counteract effects of past timber floating. In this study, we focused on the effect on riparian soil properties after returning coarse sediment (cobbles and boulders) to the channel and reconnecting riparian with instream habitats. Restoration increases habitat availability for riparian plants, but its effects on soil quality are unknown. We also analyzed whether the restoration effect differs with variation in climate and stream size. We used standardized plant species to measure the performance of a grass (Phleum pratense L.) and a forb (Centaurea cyanus L.) in soils sampled in the riparian zones of channelized and restored streams and rivers. Furthermore, we analyzed the mass fractions of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) along with the proportions of the stable isotopes C-13 and N-15 in the soil, as well as its grain size composition. We found a positive effect of restoration on biomass of phytometers grown in riparian soils from small streams, indicating that restoration enhanced the soil properties favoring plant performance. We suggest that changed flooding with more frequent but less severe floods and slower flows, enhancing retention, could explain the observed patterns. This positive effect suggests that it may be advantageous to initiate restoration efforts in small streams, which make up the highest proportion of the stream network in a catchment. Restoration responses in headwater streams may then be transmitted downstream to facilitate recovery of restored larger rivers. If the larger rivers were restored first, a slower reaction would be expected.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2014. Vol. 43, nr 6, s. 1916-1925
Nationell ämneskategori
Ekologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-98585DOI: 10.2134/jeq2014.05.0197ISI: 000345096000010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-98585DiVA, id: diva2:783469
Tillgänglig från: 2015-01-26 Skapad: 2015-01-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-07Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Use of phytometers for evaluating ecological restoration
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Use of phytometers for evaluating ecological restoration
2013 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The increase in ecological restoration can be attributed to valuation of healthyecosystems and concerns for future climate changes. Freshwaters belong among theglobally most altered ecosystems and are restored to counteract human impacts.Many Swedish streams that were channelized to facilitate timber floating have beenrestored by returning boulders and reconnecting riparian with instream habitats.Evaluation of restoration lacks reliable indicators of organism performance, possiblydue to the complexity of ecosystem responses. Phytometers, i.e. standardized plantstransplanted to different environments, are important indicators of restorationsuccess. Phytometers integrate multiple environmental factors and measureecosystem functions directly. This thesis combines a literature review with threeexperiments and focuses on phytometer use for evaluating ecological restoration. Werecommend using different phytometer species, life-forms and life-stages and longexperiments (>1 year) to obtain high resolution and generality (I). In greenhouse andfield experiments we investigated the effect of restoring channelized rivers onphytometers and abiotic variables in the riparian zone. We hypothesized thatphytometer performance varies with stream size and climate. In the greenhouse, weanalysed differences in fertility between channelized and restored reaches by growingphytometers on soils from experimental sites (II). Phytometers grew better on soilsfrom restored sites in small streams, indicating a positive effect of restoration on soil.We detected this effect already 3-7 years after restoration, suggesting a fasterrecovery than predicted. In a short-term field experiment focusing on germinationand establishment of sunflowers, seedling survival, substrate availability, and soilnutrient content in large streams were enhanced by restoration (III). Overall,phytometers performed best at high altitudes and short growing seasons. The use ofMolinia caerulea and Filipendula ulmaria as phytometers in a long-term fieldexperiment (IV) revealed a better performance at restored sites. One reason was thatsummer flow-variability was higher, particularly in medium-sized streams. Sincephytometers allocated more biomass to belowground parts at restored compared tochannelized sites, it seems important to separate above- and belowground biomass inrestoration evaluation. Restoration outcomes vary with location in the catchment.Knowing such potentially different responses could guide restorationists in where tolocate restoration to be effective or successful. We suggest that small streams reactparticularly fast to restoration. Given that the proportion of small streams is high andthat restoration success in headwaters may favour downstream reaches, werecommend restoration to begin in tributaries to larger rivers. It is not always knownwhy phytometers react the way they do. Greenhouse experiments can disentangle thecauses of phytometer responses in the field by focusing on single environmentalfactors. We demonstrate that phytometers integrate ecosystem responses torestoration by reflecting how environmental factors affect plants under fieldconditions. Further studies are needed to better understand the underlyingmechanisms.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2013. s. 31
Nyckelord
Bioassay, Channelization, Ecosystem change, Ecosystem response
Nationell ämneskategori
Ekologi
Forskningsämne
ekologisk botanik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-70098 (URN)978-91-7459-623-6 (ISBN)
Disputation
2013-05-31, Uminova Science Park, Tvistevägen 48, Älgsalen, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Forskningsfinansiär
Forskningsrådet Formas, 215-2006-491
Tillgänglig från: 2013-05-08 Skapad: 2013-05-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad

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Dietrich, AnnaLind, LovisaNilsson, ChristerJansson, Roland

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Journal of Environmental Quality
Ekologi

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Totalt: 327 träffar
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