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Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. (Arcum ; EcoChange ; UMFpub)
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. (Arcum)
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2015 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, S345-S356 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change is likely to have large effectson the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2–4 Cwarming and 50–80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100.Precipitation may increase *30 % in the north, causingincreased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter(AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity.Coupled physical–biogeochemical models indicate that, inthe south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing codrecruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release,thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north,heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, whilephytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophiclevels in the food web may increase energy losses andconsequently reduce fish production. Future managementof the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climatechange on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as wellas the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load.Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassingboth autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g.,bacterial) processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015. Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, S345-S356 p.
Keyword [en]
Climate change, Allochthonous organic matter, Primary production, Bacterial production, Food web, Monitoring
National Category
Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-98932DOI: 10.1007/s13280-015-0654-8ISI: 000362290800003PubMedID: 26022318OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-98932DiVA: diva2:784205
Note

Supplement: 3 Special Issue: SI

Available from: 2015-01-28 Created: 2015-01-28 Last updated: 2017-10-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Bioavailability of organic contaminants in a changing climate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioavailability of organic contaminants in a changing climate
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The effects of predicted future climate change was investigated with special emphasis on the association of organic contaminants with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Baltic Sea.

An automated method was developed for the measurements of DOC - water distribution constants at realistic DOC concentrations in brackish water. The method proved to be valid for 30 organic contaminants with different structural elements in the 5 – 100 mg car bon/L DOC concentration range. There were limitations of this method. Firstly, its applicability is limited towards contaminants with lower affinity to DOC. Secondly, at higher (>100 mg carbon/L) DOC concentrations the sorption of contaminants was underest imated.

Afterwards, water samples were collected from 15 points within the Baltic Sea in a north - south gradient t o examine the spatial differences in DOC characteristics and sorption properties . The DOC samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Results from both techniques indicated that the aromatic nature of the DOC pool increased towards the northern Baltic Sea. This was expected as the freshwater inflow has high significance in controlling the hydrograp hic conditions in the Bothnian Bay. Sorption of organic contaminants was subsequently measured in the same samples. The results showed decreased sorption from north to south for hydrophobic contaminants such as chlorinated benzenes but for contaminants lik e tributyl - phosphate no spatial tendencies were observed. The data generated was used to determine molecular descriptors of DOC using linear free energy relationships. The results indicated a higher significance of hy drogen bond donor/acceptor functional g roups of the DOC in the south.

Changes in contaminant distribution were simulated in model pelagic ecosystems at possible endpoints predicted by future climate change scenarios. Separate and combined effects of temperature a nd DOC were studied in mesocosms. The results indicated interesting tendencies. Increased temperature resulted in increased losses in the amounts of organic contaminants. Increased DOC levels promoted sedimentation and sorption of contaminants to particulate matter and biota. Hi gher amounts of contaminants were retained. The combined effects of the two factors led to and overall decrease in dissolved amounts. Higher losses or increased sedimentation and sorption to particles were also observed depending on contaminant properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2015. 82 p.
Keyword
climate change, organic contaminants, sorption, dissolved organic carbon, bioavailability
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-98828 (URN)978-91-7601-220-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-02-20, Södra Hörsalen, KBC Huset, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
EcoChange
Available from: 2015-01-30 Created: 2015-01-27 Last updated: 2015-02-02Bibliographically approved
2. Bacterioplankton in the Baltic Sea: influence of allochthonous organic matter and salinity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bacterioplankton in the Baltic Sea: influence of allochthonous organic matter and salinity
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Climate change is expected to increase the precipitation ~30% in higher latitudes during the next century, increasing the land runoff via rivers to aquatic ecosystems. The Baltic Sea will receive higher river discharges, accompanied by larger input of allochthonous dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial ecosystems. The salinity will decrease due to freshwater dilution. The allochthonous DOM constitute a potential growth substrate for microscopic bacterioplankton and phytoplankton, which together make up the basal trophic level in the sea. The aim of my thesis is to elucidate the bacterial processing of allochthonous DOM and to evaluate possible consequences of increased runoff on the basal level of the food web in the Baltic Sea. I performed field studies, microcosm experiments and a theoretical modeling study.

Results from the field studies showed that allochthonous DOM input via river load promotes the heterotrophic bacterial production and influences the bacterial community composition in the northern Baltic Sea. In a northerly estuary ~60% of bacterial production was estimated to be sustained by terrestrial sources, and allochthonous DOM was a strong structuring factor for the bacterial community composition. Network analysis showed that during spring the diversity and the interactions between the bacteria were relatively low, while later during summer other environmental factors regulate the community, allowing a higher diversity and more interactions between different bacterial groups. The influence of the river inflow on the bacterial community allowed “generalists” bacteria to be more abundant than “specialists” bacteria.   

Results from a transplantation experiment, where bacteria were transplanted from the northern Baltic Sea to the seawater from the southern Baltic Sea and vice versa, showed that salinity, as well as the DOM composition affect the bacterial community composition and their enzymatic activity. The results showed that α-proteobacteria in general were favoured by high salinity, β-proteobacteria by low salinity and terrestrial DOM compounds and γ-proteobacteria by the enclosure itself. However, effects on the community composition and enzymatic activity were not consistent when the bacterial community was retransplanted, indicating a functional redundancy of the bacterial communities. 

Results of ecosystem modeling showed that climate change is likely to have quite different effect on the north and the south of the Baltic Sea. In the south, higher temperature and internal nutrient load will increase the cyanobacterial blooms and expand the anoxic or suboxic areas. In the north, climate induced increase in riverine inputs of allochthonous DOM is likely to promote bacterioplankton production, while phytoplankton primary production will be hampered due to increased light attenuation in the water. This, in turn, can decrease the production at higher trophic levels, since bacteria-based food webs in general are less efficient than food webs based on phytoplankton. However, complex environmental influences on the bacterial community structure and the large redundancy of metabolic functions limit the possibility of predicting how the bacterial community composition will change under climate change disturbances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2016. 23 p.
Keyword
Bacterioplankton production; bacterial community structure; allochthonous organic matter; carbon utilization; dissolved organic carbon composition; bacterioplankton ecological function; bacterial diversity; bacterial network; Baltic Sea estuary; food web; climate change.
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
biology, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117977 (URN)978-91-7601-412-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-01, KB3B1, Linnaeus väg 6 (Chemical Biological Center, KBC), Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Ecosystem dynamics in the Baltic Sea in a changing climate perspective - ECOCHANGE
Available from: 2016-03-11 Created: 2016-03-08 Last updated: 2017-09-01Bibliographically approved
3. Phytoplankton drivers in a marine system influenced by allochthonous organic matter – the Baltic Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phytoplankton drivers in a marine system influenced by allochthonous organic matter – the Baltic Sea
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Climate change scenarios predict that seawater temperature and precipitation will increase in the Baltic Sea region during the next century. In the northern part of the Baltic Sea, increasing inflows of the terrestrial allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) are expected to be a major consequence of elevated rainfall, which can alter light and nutrient availability for phytoplankton. The aim of my thesis was to elucidate effects of ADOM on phytoplankton production, community, size-structure and nutritional strategy along offshore south-north gradients in the Baltic Sea, as well as in estuarine systems exposed to seasonal variation in river discharge. Field studies, a mesocosm experiment and a modeling study were used to explore these issues.

Results from the field studies and mesocosm experiment illustrated that the nutritional strategy, size-structure and cellular pigment content of the phytoplankton were governed by changes in ADOM, and thus in light and nutrient availability. A summer study along an offshore south-north gradient showed that the proportion of mixotrophic phytoplankton increased towards the north. In this area the concentrations humic substances (proxy for ADOM) were high, while the light availability and phosphorus concentrations were relatively low. The phytoplankton cells responded to reduced light availability by increasing their chlorophyll a: carbon ratio. Additionally, the levels of photoprotective pigments decreased from south to north, as a result of acclimation to a low-light environment and reduced exposure to ultraviolet radiation. According to ecological assumptions picophytoplankton should be favored in light- and nutrient-limited environments. However, the results did not follow that pattern, the proportion of picophytoplankton being highest in the relatively nutrient rich Baltic Proper. The study was performed during the decline of an extensive bloom of filamentous cyanobacteria, a successional phase in which picophytoplankton often dominate the phytoplankton community.

The estuarine studies performed in the Bothnian Bay (Råne estuary) and in the Bothnian Sea (Öre estuary) showed different successions. In the Råne estuary no spring phytoplankton bloom occurred and highest primary production was observed during the summer. This absence of a spring bloom was explained by low phosphorus and high ADOM concentrations, while the summer maximum could be explained by higher temperature and nutrient concentrations. In the Öre estuary a marked phytoplankton spring bloom was observed as well as an ADOM sustained bacterial production phase. The later secondary peak of bacterial production observed in summer, concomitant with an extended secondary primary production peak, suggests that autochthonous dissolved organic matter supported the bacterial growth Furthermore, the photosynthetic efficiency (i.e. phytoplankton growth rates) was lower during spring, indicating that high ADOM, and thus lower light and phosphorus availability, disfavored phytoplankton growth.

Our modeling study showed that climate change can impact the food web; however effects will be different between basins. In the southern Baltic Sea elevated temperature and nutrient discharge may promote nutrient recycling and oxygen consumption, potentially extending anoxic areas, sediment nutrient release and cyanobacteria blooms. In the north, increased inflow of ADOM may promote heterotrophic bacterial production and decrease primary production due to light attenuation and lower phosphorus availability. This will favor the heterotrophic microbial food web and consequently lead to lower food web efficiency of the ecosystem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2016. 31 p.
Keyword
phytoplankton, nutrients, allochthonous organic matter, humic substances, structuring factors
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126389 (URN)978-91-7601-571-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-10-28, Lilla Hörsalen (KB3A9), KBC-huset, Umeå, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-10-07 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-09-01Bibliographically approved

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