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Longitudinal Assessment of Pregnancy Hormones
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences. German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
New York University school of medicine, New York, USA.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Evidence suggests that the hormonal milieu of pregnancy is an important determinant of subsequent cancer and other chronic diseases in both the mother and the offspring. How well a single blood specimen collected during a pregnancy characterizes exposure to these hormones throughout gestation, and also in subsequent pregnancies, is not well understood. We used serial serum samples from 71 pregnant women (25 primiparous, 25 biparous, and 21 with 2 consecutive pregnancies) with natural, complication-free pregnancies and a healthy offspring at term who participated in a population-based screening trial for congenital infections in Finland between January 1st, 1988 and June 30, 1989 and provided a blood sample in each trimester. Hormone levels were more strongly correlated between consecutive trimesters of a pregnancy than between the 1st and 3rd trimester (e.g. estradiol, 1st vs. 2nd and 2nd vs. 3rd trimester r=0.51 and r=0.60, p<0.01; 1st vs. 3rd trimester r=0.32, p<0.05). Concentrations of sRANKL remained stable throughout gestation, whereas estradiol, estrone, progesterone, testosterone, prolactin, and osteoprotegerin increased throughout pregnancy. First trimester hormone concentrations explained less of the variation in the third trimester on their own than second trimester hormone levels (e.g. estradiol R²T1=16% and R²T2=42%). Addition of maternal (e.g., smoking) and/or child characteristics (e.g., sex) improved the accuracy of the 3rd trimester estimates for some of the hormones. In conclusion, one hormone measurement in early pregnancy, in conjunction with maternal and fetal characteristics, permits estimation of 3rd trimester hormone concentrations.

Keyword [en]
Longitudinal study, pregnancy, steroid hormones, OPG, sRANKL
National Category
Medical Bioscience Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102003OAI: diva2:806372
Available from: 2015-04-20 Created: 2015-04-20 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hormone concentrations during pregnancy and maternal risk of epithelial ovarian cancer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hormone concentrations during pregnancy and maternal risk of epithelial ovarian cancer
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The aim of this thesis was to study the relationship of pre-diagnostic circulating concentrations of sex steroid hormones (androgens, estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and progesterone), growth factors (insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), placental growth hormone (GH)), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) overall, and by tumor invasiveness and histology. A longitudinal study was used to assess patterns of hormonal changes during a single pregnancy, and in two consecutive pregnancies.

Materials & Methods: A case-control study was nested within the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort. A total of 1 052 EOC cases were identified through linkages with the cancer registries in both countries. For each case, 2-3 controls were selected. Cases and controls were matched on cohort, age and date at blood draw, as well as for parity at blood draw and at diagnosis (n=2 695). Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals [CI] were estimated using conditional logistic regression. The longitudinal study was based on 71 pregnant Finnish women, who donated blood samples in each trimester of pregnancy.

Results: Higher androgen concentrations were associated with an increased risk of overall EOC (e.g., testosterone ORT3 vs. T1: 1.56 [1.30-1.87], ptrend<0.0001), while the risk of endometrioid tumors increased with higher estradiol concentrations (ORT3 vs. T1: 2.76 [1.04-7.33], ptrend=0.03). Higher IGF-I was associated with a non-significant decrease in risk for invasive (ORT3 vs. T1: 0.79 [0.62-1.02], ptrend=0.07) and endometrioid tumors (ORT3 vs. T1: 0.55 [0.28-1.07], ptrend=0.07). The inverse association between IGF-I levels and risk of invasive EOC was stronger in analyses limited to women aged <55 years at diagnosis (ORT3 vs. T1: 0.74 [0.57-0.96], ptrend=0.03). No associations were observed between pre-diagnostic progesterone, SHBG, placental GH, and AMH with EOC risk overall, or by tumor invasiveness and histology.

The longitudinal study showed that hormone concentrations were more strongly correlated between consecutive trimesters of a pregnancy than between the 1st and 3rd trimesters. Further, 3rd trimester hormone concentrations can be estimated from 1st or 2nd trimester measurements.

Conclusion: Higher pre-diagnostic androgens, estradiol, and IGF-I are associated with EOC risk, and associations differ by tumor invasiveness and histology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2015. 82 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1715
epithelial ovarian cancer, sex steroid hormones, IGF-I, placental GH, AMH, pregnancy, prospective study
National Category
Medical Bioscience
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102181 (URN)978-91-7601-273-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-22, Sal E04, By 6E, Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Available from: 2015-04-29 Created: 2015-04-22 Last updated: 2015-05-08Bibliographically approved

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Schock, HelenaLundin, EvaGrankvist, KjellLakso, Hans-ÅkeIdahl, Annika
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