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Impact on mortality of systolic and/or diastolic heart failure in the elderly: 10 Years of follow up
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital, Skellefteå, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Skellefteå Hospital, Skellefteå, Sweden.
2015 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics, ISSN 2210-8335, Vol. 6, no 1, 20-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background/purpose: There is a lack of long-term follow-up studies for elderly patients with heart failure (HF) in primary health care. There is conflicting information on prognostic differences between systolic or diastolic HF in elderly patients. Our aims were, first, to study the association between overall HF or types of HF and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and second, to explore the impact of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) and comorbidities. Methods: A longitudinal, prognostic, observational primary health care study with 10 years of follow-up comparing an elderly patient population with HF (systolic and/or diastolic HF) to patients without HF was conducted. HF was diagnosed with echocardiography according to the European Society of Cardi- ology guidelines. Results: Seventy-seven of 144 patients (102 women and 42 men; mean age, 77 years) had systolic and/or diastolic HF and were compared with 67 patients without HF (Reference group). During the 10-year follow-up, 71 (49%) patients died (women, 68%; men, 32%). In univariate Cox regression analysis, sig- nificant associations were found for overall HF [hazard ratio (HR), 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15 e3.01], isolated systolic HF (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.06e3.61), and combined (systolic and diastolic) HF (HR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.74e6.14) with all-cause mortality, but not for isolated diastolic HF. Similar results were found for cardiovascular mortality. In multivariate analysis, age (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.06e1.17), kidney dysfunction (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.11e3.29), smoking (HR, 3.70; 95% CI, 2.02e6.77), and NTproBNP (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00e1.02) significantly predicted all-cause mortality, but not any type of HF. Conclusion: Patients diagnosed with systolic HF had a worse prognosis for mortality compared to the reference group, but in patients with diastolic HF the prognosis for mortality was similar with that in the reference group. NTproBNP was a valuable prognostic factor in elderly patients. Emphasis should be 1. Introduction In the elderly population (>75 years), the prevalence of heart failure (HF) is about 10%.1 The prognosis for patients with HF is poor, comparable to a diagnosis of cancer.2 Severe systolic HF has the most serious prognosis,3 but whether diastolic HF has the same ominous prognosis as systolic HF in both younger and elderly pa- tients is a matter of debate.3e5 Elderly patients, especially females, are known to more often have diastolic HF than younger patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 6, no 1, 20-26 p.
Keyword [en]
elderly, heart failur, primary health care, prognosis
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102565DOI: 10.1016/j.jcgg.2014.10.002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-102565DiVA: diva2:808348
Available from: 2015-04-28 Created: 2015-04-28 Last updated: 2015-05-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Heart failure in elderly with focus on diagnosis and prognosis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heart failure in elderly with focus on diagnosis and prognosis
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Patients older than 75 years with heart failure (HF) are at increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions. Echocardiography and brain natriuretic peptides (BNP, NTproBNP) are important diagnostic tools but sparsely evaluated in elderly PHC patients. Aims: Validate the clinical diagnosis of HF, investigate the types of HF and underlying cardiovascular disorders with focus on sex and age differences. Explore the sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (NPV, PPV) of BNP and NT-proBNP in patients with systolic HF. Study the associations of HF or NTproBNP on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Study the prognostic value of different biomarkers and HF, on all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalizations. Methods: Patients with suspected HF were recruited from one selected PHC and registered on a prespecified record and referred for an echocardiographic examination and a final cardiologist consultation. Blood samples for natriuretic peptides were stored frozen at – 70° C. Death certificates were used to register all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. To register hospitalisations, medical records were used and classification was defined according to ICD-10. Results The GPs identified 121 women and 49 men with suspected HF of whom 39% (51 women and 16 men) were above 80 years. Myocardial infarction (OR:4,3 CL: 1,8-10,6) hypertension (OR:3,4 CI:1,6-6,9) atrial fibrillation (OR:2,8 CL:1,0-7,9) predicted a confirmed diagnosis of HF. Confirmed HF was verified in 45% of the patients and was significantly more common in men than women (p=0,02). The best NPV was 88 % for NT-proBNP (200 ng/L) and 87 % for BNP (20 pg/ml). Age and male gender were independently associated with higher levels of NT-proBNP. During the 10-year follow up, 71 out of 144 patients died. In univariate Cox regression analysis, significant associations were found for overall HF (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.15- 3.01), isolated systolic HF (HR:1.95; 95% CI:1.06-3.61), and combined (systolic and diastolic) HF (HR:3.28; 95% CI:1.74-6.14) with all-cause mortality, but not for isolated diastolic HF. In multivariable analysis, age (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.06-1.17), kidney dysfunction (HR:1.91; 95% CI:1.11- 3.29), smoking (HR:3.70; 95% CI:2.02-6.77), and NTproBNP (HR:1.01; 95% CI:1.00-1.02), but not any type of HF, significantly predicted all-cause mortality. During ten years, 136 (80%) patients were hospitalised with 660 and 207 for all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalisations, respectively. Age (OR:1.1; 95% CI:1.01-1.15) and underlying heart disease (OR:3.5; 95% CI:1.00-11.89), significantly predicted all-cause hospitalisation. Overall HF (HR:1.8; 95% CI:1.06-2.94) significantly predicted time to first all-cause hospitalisations. For cardiovascular hospitalisations age (OR:1.1;95%CI:1.01-1.12), underlying heart disease (OR:3.4;95%CI:1.04-11.40) and NTproBNP ≥800 ng/L (OR:4,3;95%CI:1.5-12.50) were significant predictors. Conclusion: A confirmed diagnosis of HF was present in 45% of the patients. NPV was high, but not as high as in younger patients with HF. Patients with systolic HF had a higher mortality than patients with diastolic HF compared to patients with no HF. Patients with combined HF were at even higher risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Age, kidney dysfunction, NTproBNP and smoking predicted mortality. Age and underlying heart diseases were predictors for all-cause hospitalisations and together with NTproBNP they also predicted cardiovascular hospitalisations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2015. 93 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1723
Keyword
elderly, chronic heart failure, primary health care, natriuretic peptides, prognosis, mortality, hospitalisation
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102571 (URN)978-91-7601-275-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-29, Forumsalen, Campus Skellefteå, Skellefteå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-08 Created: 2015-04-28 Last updated: 2015-05-21Bibliographically approved

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