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Influence of ozone initiated processing on the toxicity of aerosol particles from small scale wood combustion
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
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2015 (English)In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 102, 282-289 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Black carbon containing emissions from biomass combustion are being transformed in the atmosphere upon processing induced by tropospheric ozone and UV. The knowledge today is very limited on how atmospheric processing affects the toxicological properties of the emissions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ozone initiated (dark) atmospheric processing on the physicochemical and toxicological properties of particulate emissions from wood combustion. Emissions from a conventional wood stove operated at two combustion conditions (nominal and hot air starved) were diluted and transferred to a chamber. Particulate matter (PM) was collected before and after ozone addition to the chamber using an impactor. Detailed chemical and physical characterization was performed on chamber air and collected PM. The collected PM was investigated toxicologically in vitro with a mouse macrophage model, endpoints included: cell cycle analysis, viability, inflammation and genotoxicity. The results suggest that changes in the organic fraction, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the main driver for differences in obtained toxicological effects. Fresh hot air starved emissions containing a higher organic and PAH mass-fraction affected cell viability stronger than fresh emissions from nominal combustion. The PAH mass fractions decreased upon aging due to chemical degradation. Dark aging increased genotoxicity, reduced viability and reduced release of inflammatory markers. These differences were statistically significant for single doses and typically less pronounced. We hypothesize that the alterations in toxicity upon simulated dark aging in the atmosphere may be caused by reaction products that form when PAHs and other organic compounds react with ozone and nitrate radicals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 102, 282-289 p.
Keyword [en]
Biomass combustion, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Aging, Cell studies
National Category
Environmental Sciences Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-102306DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.11.068ISI: 000349590300031OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-102306DiVA: diva2:825767
Available from: 2015-06-24 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Particle emissions from residential wood and biodiesel combustion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle emissions from residential wood and biodiesel combustion
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Emissions from anthropogenic combustion sources, such as vehicles and biomass combustion, contribute significantly to ambient particulate matter (PM) both on a local and global scale. Exposure to ambient PM and air pollution in general is linked to a variety of different health effects and it has been estimated that as many as 2.1 million premature deaths each year, due to cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, are caused by the changes in anthropogenic air pollution since pre-industrial times. There is today still a lack of information regarding the emissions of different specific particulate emission components, e.g. soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxy-PAHs combined with details about the behaviour of different fuels under varying combustion conditions. The overall objective of this work was to provide new knowledge regarding physical and chemical properties of PM from solid and liquid biofuels, which are important for the viewpoint of human health and atmospheric pollution. This was achieved by experimental studies of the combustion of biomass using a residential wood stove and by introducing biodiesel to an off-road engine, thereby investigating two major emission sources for PM and gaseous emissions.

From the two papers regarding biodiesel included in this thesis, it can be concluded that the introduction of the biodiesel, and potentially other renewable fuels, can in a considerable way change the exhaust particle emissions. This could have implications for the assessment of exhaust from engines running on biodiesel fuels, especially when introducing biodiesel in existing and older engines.

The results from the wood combustion research performed showed some important considerations regarding both specific particle properties and the influences of different burning conditions and fuels. One major finding, based on several of the included studies, was that a proper operation of a wood stove is of major importance to avoid unfavourable burning condition and elevated emissions of soot and organic particles, regardless of the wood species used. Some specific occasions during the burning phases in batch wise wood combustion were also identified as important for the overall emissions. The results from this research has given new specific insights into the emissions from wood stoves and should be of relevance for both technological development of residential appliances, emission testing/certification, information to users and legislation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2016. 75 p.
Keyword
Combustion, biomass, wood, biodiesel, particulate matter, emissions, aerosols, physicochemical properties, size distribution, PAH
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-127460 (URN)978-91-7601-605-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-14, N460, Naturvetarhuset, Johan Bures Väg 16, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-23 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved

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