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Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage.
Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland .
Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland . (Chondrogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6181-9904
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2007 (English)In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 52, no 4, 1209-1219 p., 17264381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T1,Gd and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n=3) and trypsin-degraded (n=3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n=16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p<0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p<0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r=-0.95, r=-0.94, p<0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally degraded articular cartilage in vitro. As high resolution imaging of e.g. the knee joint is possible with pQCT, the present technique may be further developed for in vivo quantification of PG depletion in osteoarthritic cartilage. However, careful in vitro and in vivo characterization of diffusion mechanics and optimal contrast agent concentrations are needed before diagnostic applications are feasible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2007. Vol. 52, no 4, 1209-1219 p., 17264381
Keyword [en]
Articular cartilage, osteoarthritis, proteoglycycan, contrast agent, peripheral quantitative computed tomography
National Category
Medical Engineering Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Orthopedics Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Research subject
Biochemistry; Orthopaedics; Radiology
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-106641DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/52/4/024PubMedID: 17264381OAI: diva2:843105
Available from: 2015-07-26 Created: 2015-07-26 Last updated: 2015-07-26

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