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Gender and Social Determinants of road accident mortality and injury in low- and middle- income countries: A literature review
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
2015 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]


Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are becoming one of the most serious public health problems in the World, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is a fact that 90% of traffic deaths happened in these countries which contain roughly half of world’s total vehicle. Besides that, the influences of RTAs on men and women are sharply difference with the number of men died is nearly 3 times higher than women as well as traffic injuries. Unsafe driving behaviours are the most common traffic accidents causes, such as excessive speed and drink-driving. These factors separate differently between men and women and link closely with socio-cultural factors. Following this inequality health outcome in LMICs, gender theory is used to explain not only the gap between men and women, but also find the impact of other factors by applying power relationship and labour construction to analyze.


This paper aims to review the disparity of driver’s risk contributing factors between men and women. The socio-cultural factors, then, influence to their decision making about road safety in LMICs.


Literature review was conducted by using electronic database of PubMed and Web of Science to define research outcomes and the World Bank to pinpoint LMICs in selected studies. The research key words were: road traffic accidents and Road traffic accidents separately combined with: gender differences (theory), drivers, knowledge, behavior, attitude and low- and middle-income countries in both qualitative and quantitative studies. After collecting 18 full-text articles, including 6 qualitative studies and 12 quantitative ones, I analyzed 2 types of methods separately to find common contributing risk factors and summed them up into different themes. Finally, gender theory was used to analyze the different outcome between men and women relating to RTAs.


There were two qualitative themes and three quantitative ones leading to unsafe driving factors in these countries. Two themes based on qualitative studies were socio-cultural determinants and personal factors and in terms of quantitative ones, three themes were human factors, vehicle factors and environmental factors. Two quantitative articles were concerned gender difference and no qualitative articles used a gender approach to their research.


A gender-base approach to RTAs in LMICs was rare. Most of studies mentioned the big difference between men and women due to RTAs but the authors did not explain the difference contributing factors in gender. Interestingly, applying gender theory, I found that masculinity and femininity have strongly relationship with the difference of risk driving behaviours between men and women. This theory is a useful tool to explore the circumstance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 30 p.
, Centre for public health report series, ISSN 1651-341X ; 2015:32
Keyword [en]
gender difference approach traffic accidents; traffic accidents and gender theory.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107113OAI: diva2:846974
Educational program
Master's Programme in Public Health (one-year)
2015-05-25, A110, Caring Sciences Building:, Umeå, 09:30 (English)
Available from: 2016-04-15 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2016-04-15Bibliographically approved

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