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Short and long term low temperature responses in Arabidopsis thaliana
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). (Vaughan Hurry)
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A unique aspect of plant biology is their ability to respond very rapidly to shifts in their ever-changing environment. To do this, plants need to have evolved mechanisms that enable them to sense their environment and to rapidly respond to different stresses and different combinations of stress. The main focus of my thesis has been on plant responses to low temperature. One way in which the plant cell is thought to sense low temperature is via the rigidification of the plasma membrane that occurs when the temperature falls rapidly. I showed that CRMK1, a leucine-rich-repeat-receptor-like kinase, located in the plasma membrane is a key component of the cold sensing machinery. I show that a T-DNA insertion mutant of CRMK1 attenuated the expression of marker cold genes in response to cold stress and decreased the plants ability to acquire freezing tolerance after 3 days of exposure to low temperature. I described a protective mechanism in the thylakoid membranes by which excess electrons, which can accumulate at low temperature and under high light in cold acclimated plants, can be dissipated. In order to properly respond to a changing surroundings cells not only have to sense the fluctuations but they need to communicate this changes to the nucleus and I showed that organelles such as the chloroplasts can act as a sensor of changing temperature and communicate this information to the nucleus to change the expression of cold regulated genes. I presented and identified factors in addition to low temperature that regulate the expression of genes for cold tolerance. I showed that a circadian signal, together with plastid and light signals, influence the expression of nuclear encoded cold tolerance genes (CBF3 and COR15). The response of plants to low temperature also depends on the duration of the cold stress. There are plants, such as over-wintering herbaceous and perennial woody plants, that have to survive and grow for prolonged periods at low temperature and there are those from extreme polar or alpine environments that spend entire life in cold. I provided a comprehensive overview of the biological processes and genes that enable plants to survive and develop the full cold acclimated state during long-term over wintering and growth in the low temperature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2015. , 85 p.
National Category
Botany
Research subject
biology; Molecular Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107647ISBN: 978-91-7601-319-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-107647DiVA: diva2:848592
Public defence
2015-09-23, KB3A9, KBC-huset, Umeå University, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-09-02 Created: 2015-08-25 Last updated: 2015-11-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. CRMK1 a receptor-like kinase in the plasma membrane mediates the cold acclimation response in Arabidopsis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CRMK1 a receptor-like kinase in the plasma membrane mediates the cold acclimation response in Arabidopsis
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
cold sensor, signaling pathway activated by cold, Arabidopsis thaliana
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Molecular Biology; biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107595 (URN)
Available from: 2015-08-25 Created: 2015-08-25 Last updated: 2015-11-16
2. HSP90, ZTL, PRR5 and HY5 integrate circadian and plastid signaling pathways to regulate CBF and COR expression
Open this publication in new window or tab >>HSP90, ZTL, PRR5 and HY5 integrate circadian and plastid signaling pathways to regulate CBF and COR expression
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107610 (URN)
Available from: 2015-08-25 Created: 2015-08-25 Last updated: 2015-11-16
3. Implications of alternative electron sinks in increased resistance of PSII and PSI photochemistry to high light stress in cold-acclimated Arabidopsis thaliana
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implications of alternative electron sinks in increased resistance of PSII and PSI photochemistry to high light stress in cold-acclimated Arabidopsis thaliana
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2012 (English)In: Photosynthesis Research, ISSN 0166-8595, E-ISSN 1573-5079, Vol. 113, no 1-3, 191-206 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposure of control (non-hardened) Arabidopsis leaves to high light stress at 5 A degrees C resulted in a decrease of both photosystem II (PSII) (45 %) and Photosystem I (PSI) (35 %) photochemical efficiencies compared to non-treated plants. In contrast, cold-acclimated (CA) leaves exhibited only 35 and 22 % decrease of PSII and PSI photochemistry, respectively, under the same conditions. This was accompanied by an accelerated rate of P700(+) re-reduction, indicating an up-regulation of PSI-dependent cyclic electron transport (CET). Interestingly, the expression of the NDH-H gene and the relative abundance of the Ndh-H polypeptide, representing the NDH-complex, decreased as a result of exposure to low temperatures. This indicates that the NDH-dependent CET pathway cannot be involved and the overall stimulation of CET in CA plants is due to up-regulation of the ferredoxin-plastoquinone reductase, antimycin A-sensitive CET pathway. The lower abundance of NDH complex also implies lower activity of the chlororespiratory pathway in CA plants, although the expression level and overall abundance of the other well-characterized component involved in chlororespiration, the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), was up-regulated at low temperatures. This suggests increased PTOX-mediated alternative electron flow to oxygen in plants exposed to low temperatures. Indeed, the estimated proportion of O-2-dependent linear electron transport not utilized in carbon assimilation and not directed to photorespiration was twofold higher in CA Arabidopsis. The possible involvement of alternative electron transport pathways in inducing greater resistance of both PSII and PSI to high light stress in CA plants is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dordrecht: , 2012
Keyword
Alternative electron flows, Cold acclimation, Photoprotection, Photosystem II, Photosystem I, PTOX
National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-60326 (URN)10.1007/s11120-012-9769-y (DOI)000308188800014 ()
Available from: 2012-11-09 Created: 2012-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. Essential processes determining life in cold in Arabidopsis thaliana
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Essential processes determining life in cold in Arabidopsis thaliana
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107611 (URN)
Available from: 2015-08-25 Created: 2015-08-25 Last updated: 2015-11-16

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