Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern Sweden: A Longitudinal Study
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 124, no 3, 306-312 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden.
METHODS: Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed with a Land Use Regression Model with a spatial resolution of 50 m x 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) was used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution.
RESULTS: Out of 1806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the highest exposure group were more likely to be diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia), with a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.43 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 2.05 for the highest versus lowest quartile). The estimates were similar for Alzheimer's disease (HR 1.38) and vascular dementia (HR 1.47). The HR for dementia associated for the third quartile versus the lowest quartile was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.11). A sub-analysis that excluded a younger sample that had been re-tested after only 5 years of follow-up suggested stronger associations with exposure than in the full cohort (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73 for the highest versus lowest quartile).
CONCLUSIONS: If the associations we observed are causal, then air pollution from traffic might be an important risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 124, no 3, 306-312 p.
Air Pollution, Alzheimer Disease, Follow-Up Studies, Betula
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107999DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1408322ISI: 000371442500016PubMedID: 26305859OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-107999DiVA: diva2:850165