umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
WAC: A Workload analysis and classification tool for automatic selection of cloud auto-scaling methods
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. (Distributed Systems)
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. (Distributed Systems)
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. (Distributed Systems)
Lund University.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Autoscaling algorithms for elastic cloud infrastructures dynami-cally change the amount of resources allocated to a service ac-cording to the current and predicted future load. Since there areno perfect predictors, no single elasticity algorithm is suitable foraccurate predictions of all workloads. To improve the quality ofworkload predictions and increase the Quality-of-Service (QoS)guarantees of a cloud service, multiple autoscalers suitable for dif-ferent workload classes need to be used. In this work, we intro-duce WAC, a Workload Analysis and Classification tool that as-signs workloads to the most suitable elasticity autoscaler out of aset of pre-deployed autoscalers. The workload assignment is basedon the workload characteristics and a set of user-defined Business-Level-Objectives (BLO). We describe the tool design and its maincomponents. We implement WAC and evaluate its precision us-ing various workloads, BLO combinations and state-of-the-art au-toscalers. Our experiments show that, when the classifier is tunedcarefully, WAC assigns between 87% and 98.3% of the workloadsto the most suitable elasticity autoscaler.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-108396OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-108396DiVA: diva2:852772
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilEU, European Research Council
Available from: 2015-09-10 Created: 2015-09-10 Last updated: 2015-09-24
In thesis
1. Workload characterization, controller design and performance evaluation for cloud capacity autoscaling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workload characterization, controller design and performance evaluation for cloud capacity autoscaling
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis studies cloud capacity auto-scaling, or how to provision and release re-sources to a service running in the cloud based on its actual demand using an auto-matic controller. As the performance of server systems depends on the system design,the system implementation, and the workloads the system is subjected to, we focuson these aspects with respect to designing auto-scaling algorithms. Towards this goal,we design and implement two auto-scaling algorithms for cloud infrastructures. Thealgorithms predict the future load for an application running in the cloud. We discussthe different approaches to designing an auto-scaler combining reactive and proactivecontrol methods, and to be able to handle long running requests, e.g., tasks runningfor longer than the actuation interval, in a cloud. We compare the performance ofour algorithms with state-of-the-art auto-scalers and evaluate the controllers’ perfor-mance with a set of workloads. As any controller is designed with an assumptionon the operating conditions and system dynamics, the performance of an auto-scalervaries with different workloads.In order to better understand the workload dynamics and evolution, we analyze a6-years long workload trace of the sixth most popular Internet website. In addition,we analyze a workload from one of the largest Video-on-Demand streaming servicesin Sweden. We discuss the popularity of objects served by the two services, the spikesin the two workloads, and the invariants in the workloads. We also introduce, a mea-sure for the disorder in a workload, i.e., the amount of burstiness. The measure isbased on Sample Entropy, an empirical statistic used in biomedical signal processingto characterize biomedical signals. The introduced measure can be used to charac-terize the workloads based on their burstiness profiles. We compare our introducedmeasure with the literature on quantifying burstiness in a server workload, and showthe advantages of our introduced measure.To better understand the tradeoffs between using different auto-scalers with differ-ent workloads, we design a framework to compare auto-scalers and give probabilisticguarantees on the performance in worst-case scenarios. Using different evaluation cri-teria and more than 700 workload traces, we compare six state-of-the-art auto-scalersthat we believe represent the development of the field in the past 8 years. Knowingthat the auto-scalers’ performance depends on the workloads, we design a workloadanalysis and classification tool that assigns a workload to its most suitable elasticitycontroller out of a set of implemented controllers. The tool has two main components;an analyzer, and a classifier. The analyzer analyzes a workload and feeds the analysisresults to the classifier. The classifier assigns a workload to the most suitable elasticitycontroller based on the workload characteristics and a set of predefined business levelobjectives. The tool is evaluated with a set of collected real workloads, and a set ofgenerated synthetic workloads. Our evaluation results shows that the tool can help acloud provider to improve the QoS provided to the customers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2015. 16 p.
Series
Report / UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 15.09
Keyword
cloud computing, autoscaling, workloads, performance modeling, controller design
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-108398 (URN)978-91-7601-330-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-10-02, N360, Naturveterhuset Building, Umeå University, Umeå, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, European Research CouncilSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2015-09-11 Created: 2015-09-10 Last updated: 2015-10-07Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Ali-Eldin, AhmedTordsson, JohanElmroth, Erik
By organisation
Department of Computing Science
Computer Systems

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 2895 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf