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Gaze perception and awareness in smart devices
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. (Immersive Interaction Lab (i2Lab))ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3037-4244
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. (Immersive Interaction Lab (i2Lab))
2016 (English)In: International journal of human-computer studies, ISSN 1071-5819, E-ISSN 1095-9300, Vol. 92-93, 55-65 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eye contact and gaze awareness play a significant role for conveying emotions and intentions duringface-to-face conversation. Humans can perceive each other's gaze quite naturally and accurately. However,the gaze awareness/perception are ambiguous during video teleconferencing performed by computer-based devices (such as laptops, tablet, and smart-phones). The reasons for this ambiguity are the(i) camera position relative to the screen and (ii) 2D rendition of 3D human face i.e., the 2D screen isunable to deliver an accurate gaze during video teleconferencing. To solve this problem, researchers haveproposed different hardware setups with complex software algorithms. The most recent solution foraccurate gaze perception employs 3D interfaces, such as 3D screens and 3D face-masks. However, todaycommonly used video teleconferencing devices are smart devices with 2D screens. Therefore, there is aneed to improve gaze awareness/perception in these smart devices. In this work, we have revisited thequestion; how to improve a remote user's gaze awareness among his/her collaborators. Our hypothesis isthat ‘an accurate gaze perception can be achieved by the ‘3D embodiment’ of a remote user's head gestureduring video teleconferencing’. We have prototyped an embodied telepresence system (ETS) for the 3Dembodiment of a remote user's head. Our ETS is based on a 3-DOF neck robot with a mounted smartdevice (tablet PC). The electromechanical platform in combination with a smart device is a novel setupthat is used for studying gaze awareness/perception in 2D screen-based smart devices during videoteleconferencing. Two important gaze-related issues are considered in this work; namely (i) ‘Mona-LisaGaze Effect’ – the gaze is always directed at the person independent of his position in the room, and (ii)‘Gaze Awareness/Faithfulness’ – the ability to perceive an accurate spatial relationship between theobserving person and the object by an actor. Our results confirm that the 3D embodiment of a remoteuser head not only mitigates the Mona Lisa gaze effect but also supports three levels of gaze faithfulness,hence, accurately projecting the human gaze in distant space.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016. Vol. 92-93, 55-65 p.
Keyword [en]
Mona-Lisa gaze effect, gaze awareness, computer-mediated communication, eye contact, head gesture, gaze faithfulness, embodied telepresence system, tablet PC, HCI
National Category
Interaction Technologies Robotics Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-108568DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.05.002ISI: 000379367900005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-108568DiVA: diva2:853599
Available from: 2015-09-14 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Enabling physical action in computer mediated communication: an embodied interaction approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling physical action in computer mediated communication: an embodied interaction approach
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, 2015. 40 p.
Series
Digital Media Lab, ISSN 1652-6295 ; 20
Keyword
biologically inspired system, parallel robot, neck robot, head pose estimation, embodied interaction, telepresence system, quality of interaction, embodied telepresence system, Mona-Lisa gaze effect, eye-contact
National Category
Communication Systems Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-108569 (URN)978-91-7601-321-2 (ISBN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-09-15 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2015-09-15Bibliographically approved
2. Presence through actions: theories, concepts, and implementations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Presence through actions: theories, concepts, and implementations
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During face-to-face meetings, humans use multimodal information, including verbal information, visual information, body language, facial expressions, and other non-verbal gestures. In contrast, during computer-mediated-communication (CMC), humans rely either on mono-modal information such as text-only, voice-only, or video-only or on bi-modal information by using audiovisual modalities such as video teleconferencing. Psychologically, the difference between the two lies in the level of the subjective experience of presence, where people perceive a reduced feeling of presence in the case of CMC. Despite the current advancements in CMC, it is still far from face-to-face communication, especially in terms of the experience of presence.

This thesis aims to introduce new concepts, theories, and technologies for presence design where the core is actions for creating presence. Thus, the contribution of the thesis can be divided into a technical contribution and a knowledge contribution. Technically, this thesis details novel technologies for improving presence experience during mediated communication (video teleconferencing). The proposed technologies include action robots (including a telepresence mechatronic robot (TEBoT) and a face robot), embodied control techniques (head orientation modeling and virtual reality headset based collaboration), and face reconstruction/retrieval algorithms. The introduced technologies enable action possibilities and embodied interactions that improve the presence experience between the distantly located participants. The novel setups were put into real experimental scenarios, and the well-known social, spatial, and gaze related problems were analyzed.

The developed technologies and the results of the experiments led to the knowledge contribution of this thesis. In terms of knowledge contribution, this thesis presents a more general theoretical conceptual framework for mediated communication technologies. This conceptual framework can guide telepresence researchers toward the development of appropriate technologies for mediated communication applications. Furthermore, this thesis also presents a novel strong concept – presence through actions - that brings in philosophical understandings for developing presence- related technologies. The strong concept - presence through actions is an intermediate-level knowledge that proposes a new way of creating and developing future 'presence artifacts'. Presence- through actions is an action-oriented phenomenological approach to presence that differs from traditional immersive presence approaches that are based (implicitly) on rationalist, internalist views.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2017. 172 p.
Series
Digital Media Lab, ISSN 1652-6295 ; 22
Keyword
Presence, Immersion, Computer mediated communication, Strong concept, Phenomenology, Philosophy, Biologically inspired system, Neck robot, Head pose estimation, Embodied interaction, Virtual reality headset, Social presence, Spatial presence, Face reconstruction/retrieval, Telepresence system, Quality of interaction, Embodied telepresence system, Mona-Lisa gaze effect, eye-contact
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer Systems Communication Systems Signal Processing
Research subject
design; Computer Science; Computer Systems; Computerized Image Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-138280 (URN)978-91-7601-730-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-10-10, Triple Helix, Samverkanshuset, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2017-09-26Bibliographically approved

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Khan, Muhammad Sikandar Lalur Réhman, Shafiq
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