Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs)in e-waste plastic in Nigeria
2015 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 19, 14515-14529 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Plastics from cathode ray tube (CRT) casings weresampled in Nigeria and analysed for their polybrominateddibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PBDD/F) content.PBDD/Fs, consisting mainly of PBDFs, were detected inBFR containing plastic with a median (mean) concentrationof 18,000 ng/g (41,000 ng/g). The PBDD/Fs levels werehighest in samples containing PBDEs, but the levels ofPBDFs were two orders of magnitude higher than the levelsreported in the technical PBDE mixtures and where frequentlyexceeding 1000 μg/g of PBDE content. These higher levelsare likely to arise from additional transformation of PBDEsduring production, use, recycling, or storage, but the processesresponsible were not identified in this study. PBDD/Fs in CRTcasings containing1,2-bistribromophenoxyethane (TBPE)were dominated by tetrabrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin(TBDDs) with concentrations around 10 μg/g of the TBPEcontent. The PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containingtetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were found at concentrationsaround 0.1 μg/g of TBBPA levels. Casings treated withTBPE or TBBPA often contained PBDEs (and PBDF) as impurities—probably originating from recycled e-waste plastics.It was estimated that the 237,000 t of CRT casings stockpiledin Nigeria contain between 2 and 8 t of PBDD/Fs. The totalPBDD/F contamination in polymers arising from total historicPBDE production/use is estimated in the order of 1000 t. TEQvalues of CRT samples frequently exceeded the Basel Convention’sprovisional low POPs content of 15 ng TEQ/g. Dueto the significant risks to health associated with PBDD/Fs,more detailed studies on the exposure routes from PBDD/Fsin stockpiles are needed.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015. Vol. 22, no 19, 14515-14529 p.
PBDD, PBDF, Brominated flame retardants, WEEE, PBDEs, Stockholmconvention, Basel convention, BFR
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-108830DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5260-6ISI: 000362329300013PubMedID: 26347415OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-108830DiVA: diva2:854055