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Prövningen av en skola för alla: nationella provet i matematik i det tredje skolåret
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). (Umeå Forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM))ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7182-5649
2015 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Is school for everyone? : the national test in mathematics at Grade three in Sweden (English)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents the contribution to research that my doctoral education led to. My starting point was a large scale qualitative research project (here after called the VR-project) which reviewed the implementation of national tests in the third grade on the subject of mathematics. The VR-project investigated how the test affected the pupils with a special focus on pupils in need of special support. An urge to look further into issues concerning the support, the pupil in need and the test was revealed in he initial VR-project. These issues therefore constitutes the problem area of this thesis. The VR-project studied a total of 22 classrooms in two different municipalities' during 2010- 2012. The methodology used for this project was inspired by ethnography and discourse analysis. The raw data consisted of test instructions, video observations of the actual test subjects, interviews from teachers and pupils about the test, the support that was given throughout the testing as well as the observations and interviews of the pupils requiring special assistance. Activated discourses and positions of the participants were demarcated. The results revealed that a traditional testing discourse, a caring discourse and a competitive discourse are activated during the tests. The testing discourse is stable and traditional. Much of what was shown and said in classrooms, routines and rules regarding the test were repeated in all the schools and in all the classrooms. The discourse on support is affected by ambiguity, which is revealed especially when issues of pupils’ equity is put against the tests equality. This is connected to the teachers restricted agency to give support due to the teacher position as a test taker. The positions in need that are available to students are not the same in pupils, teachers and steering documents. The situation is especially troublesome for pupils that do not manage Swedish good enough to take the test and for pupils in need of special support. Some of the conclusions from this thesis is that the national test format: Disciplines not only the pupil, but also the teacher, the classroom and the school at large. Results indicate that the test:

Activates a focus on achievementLeads attention away from learning Activates issues of accountability Influences pupils and teachers with stakes involved

Besides evaluating knowledge, the test disciplines not only the pupil, but also the teacher, the classroom and the school at large. Discussing the national test as an arena for equity might be a way towards attaining equality in education for all pupils.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2015. , 114 p.
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar i pedagogiskt arbete, ISSN 1650-8858 ; 63
Keyword [en]
National test, Mathematics, Third grade, Special needs, Special support, Student in need of support, Discourse, Pupil, Teacher
Keyword [sv]
nationella prov, matematik, test, i behov av stöd, tredje skolåret, stöd
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-109174ISBN: 9789176013144 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-109174DiVA: diva2:855578
Public defence
2015-10-16, Naturvetarhuset, N320, Umeå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Nationella prov i matematik – vad gör testandet med eleverna?
Available from: 2015-09-25 Created: 2015-09-21 Last updated: 2015-09-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Changing Our Methods and Disrupting the Power Dynamics: National Tests in Third-Grade Classrooms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing Our Methods and Disrupting the Power Dynamics: National Tests in Third-Grade Classrooms
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, ISSN 1609-4069, E-ISSN 1609-4069, Vol. 12, 39-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a research project relating to the newly implemented mandatory Swedish national mathematics tests for third-grade students (aged nine and ten). The project’s main research concerns the students’ ideas about and reactions towards these tests and how the specific test situation affects their perception of their own mathematical proficiency. Drawing on theories which suggest that identities are more fluid than static, we want to understand how students with special needs are ‘created’. The specific aim of this paper is to discuss how our research methods have been refined during the various phases of data collection and the resulting implications. It discusses issues surrounding child research and how methods involving video recording and video stimulated recall dialogue (VSRD) can contribute to research on children’s experiences. Particular attention is given to methodological and ethical issues; how to disrupt power relations, for example. In this paper we argue that the context of the test situation not only impacted upon the students but also affected how we changed, developed and adapted our approaches as the project evolved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Alberta, Int. Inst. of Qualitative Methodology, Edmonton Clinic in Health Academy, Edmonton, Canada, 2013
Keyword
Child research, classroom research, power relations, test situations, video recording, video stimulated recall dialogues
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-61483 (URN)000326863800003 ()
Projects
Vad gör tyestandet med eleverna? En studie kring nationella prov i matematik
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2008-31116-60932-55
Available from: 2012-11-15 Created: 2012-11-15 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Disciplined by tests
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disciplined by tests
2015 (English)In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 20, no 1, 55-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article reports on a Swedish research project on the reintroduction of national tests in mathematics for nine- to ten-year-old pupils. Data were collected over a period of three years (2010-2012) by video recording test situations in different classrooms and by conducting video-stimulated recall interviews with children. The aim is to explore and analyse the testing situation and how it creates different positions for children. We conclude that discourses of testing, caring and competition, sometimes strengthening and sometimes shadowing each other and thereby, produce knowledge in children about success and failure in mathematics, positioning children as ‘winners’ or ‘losers’. The tests are interpreted as a technology – a form of disciplinary power that functions at the level of the body (Foucault, 1980).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning (NCM), 2015
Keyword
ethnographic study, children's perspective, grade three, mathematics, national tests, success, failure
National Category
Didactics Other Mathematics
Research subject
didactics of mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-95993 (URN)
Projects
Vad gör testandet med eleven? En studie kring nationella prov i matematik
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2008-32226-60932-55
Available from: 2014-11-10 Created: 2014-11-10 Last updated: 2017-06-08Bibliographically approved
3. Student Equity vs Test Equality?: support during third graders' national tests in mathematics in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Student Equity vs Test Equality?: support during third graders' national tests in mathematics in Sweden
2016 (English)In: Cursiv [publisher: Institut for Didaktik, Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitetsskole, Aarhus Universitet, DK], ISSN 1901-8878, E-ISSN 1901-8886, no 18, 123-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article throws light on the educational practice of teachers providing additional support to students during tests, more specifically during the national tests in mathematics for third graders in Sweden (hereafter called Ntm3) for the years 2010 and 2011. Both the test instructions and teacher talk related to these tests were taken into consideration. The results suggest that issues of equity and teachers’ agency arise when considering support. The dual purpose of the test, to evaluate the student and to evaluate the education, positions the teacher as both a test-giver and a test-taker and influences the discourse on support by ambiguity. I found that in such circumstances, when students´ equity comes into conflict with the test´s equality, the focus during the tests shifts from attention to learning to attention to controlling.

Abstract [sv]

Denna artikel studerar förutsättningarna för det stöd som kan ges till elever i samband med det nationella provet i matematik i det tredje skolåret (härefter kallat Ntm3), i Sverige under 2010 och 2011. Den stöddiskurs som aktiveras i samband med proven har avgränsats genom att provets instruktioner samt åtta intervjuer med lärare har analyserats. Resultaten indikerar att provet leder till att provdeltagarnas fokus förskjuts från lärande till kontroll och att provets dubbla syften positionerar läraren som både testtagare och testgivare. Detta visar sig som en ambivalens i stöddiskursen och leder till ett pedagogiskt dilemma i situationer där provets likvärdighet sätts mot elevens.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Köpenhamn: Aarhus University, 2016
Keyword
National tests, mathematics, special needs, discourse, support, multilingual pupils, third grade, teacher talk, nationella prov, matematik, tredje klass, särskilda behov, särskilt stöd
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-93358 (URN)
Conference
The Nordic Research network on Special Needs Education in Mathematics (NORSMA 7, Kopenhagen.
Projects
Vad gör testandet med eleverna? En studie kring nationella prov i matematik
Note

ISBN 978-87-7684-722-7

Originally published in thesis in manuscript form with the title: Pupil’s equity vs the test’s equality? Support during third graders National tests in Mathematics in Sweden.

Available from: 2014-09-18 Created: 2014-09-18 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Pressure at stake: Swedish third graders' talk about national tests in mathematics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pressure at stake: Swedish third graders' talk about national tests in mathematics
2016 (English)In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 21, no 1, 47-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
national tests, pressure, mathematics, third grade, position of need
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-109169 (URN)
Available from: 2015-09-21 Created: 2015-09-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
5. How Research Conceptualises the Student in Need of Special Education in Mathematics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Research Conceptualises the Student in Need of Special Education in Mathematics
2015 (English)In: Development of Mathematics Teaching: Design, Scale, Effects. Proceeding of MADIF 9. The Ninth Swedish Mathematics Education Research Seminar Umeå February 4-5, 2014 / [ed] O. Helenius, A. Engström, T. Meaney, P. Nilsson, E. Norén, J. Sayers, M. Österholm, Linköping: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2015, 27-36 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The focus of this paper is the conceptualisation of students in special educationalneeds in mathematics (SEM students) in the research fields of mathematics andspecial education. A difference between fields regarding the perspectives takenon the SEM student is obvious in the reviewed articles. Those in the specialeducational field were individual oriented in their view of the difficulties, whilstreviewed articles from the field of mathematics education more often discusssocio-cultural settings. The content in the selected 28 articles reveals that theoverall conceptualisation of SEM student has to do with the social construct ofthe SEM student, as well as with students’ experiences, affects, andprerequisites; with the specific training methods or interventions applied; withspecial areas in the subject of mathematics; with special groups of students; andwith teachers’ knowledge about all these factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2015
Series
Skrifter från Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning, ISSN 1651-3274
Keyword
special education, mathematics education, special needs
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
didactics of mathematics; educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-93357 (URN)978-91-973934-9-2 (ISBN)
Conference
MADIF 9, MADIF9: The Ninth Swedish Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Umeå, February 4-5, 2014
Note

Available from: 2014-09-18 Created: 2014-09-18 Last updated: 2016-04-18Bibliographically approved

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Prövningen av en skola för alla. Nationella provet i matematik i det tredje skolåret.(1098 kB)3710 downloads
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Bagger, Anette

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Citation style
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  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
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  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf