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Failed and successful introductions of fish species into 821 Swedish lakes
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introductions of fish into lakes can be viewed as whole system experiments, which can be used to study the principles of community assembly and factors determining the outcome of species invasions. Freshwater fish species have been translocated by humans for centuries in Sweden and this activity has been documented by national and regional authorities starting at the end of the 19th century. Based on this documentation and additional interviews with local fishermen we have compiled a dataset that includes 1158 introductions of 26 freshwater fish species into 821 Swedish lakes. The data includes both successful and failed introductions; where a successful introduction means that the introduced fish species was present in the lake for ≥20 years or that reproduction was observed earlier than that. The oldest introduction is from 1658 and the latest from 2002. Additionally, the dataset includes species composition, temperature sum, maximum temperature, lake area, elevation, longitude and latitude for all lakes. This data has been used to test hypotheses about biotic resistance and invasion success in three papers. We found the presence or absence of specific species predicted invasion success better than the species richness of the lakes. We also found that species with high invasion success tend to make a large contribution to biotic resistance, which will make communities more resistant in the future as they are invaded by additional species.

Keyword [en]
freshwater fish; introductions; invasions; biotic resistance; Sweden; invasion success, invasibility, invasiveness
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-110250OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-110250DiVA: diva2:861763
Available from: 2015-10-19 Created: 2015-10-19 Last updated: 2015-10-20
In thesis
1. Biotic resistance in freshwater fish communities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biotic resistance in freshwater fish communities
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Invasions of non-native species cause problems in ecosystems worldwide, and despite the extensive effort that has been put into research about invasions, we still lack a good understanding for why some, but not other, communities resist these invasions. In this doctoral thesis I test hypotheses on biotic resistance using a large dataset of more than 1000 both failed and successful introductions of freshwater fish into Swedish lakes. We have found that the classic species richness hypothesis is a poor descriptor of introduction success because it fails to acknowledge that resident species contribute to the resistance in different ways. We developed a new measure of biotic resistance, the weighted species richness, which takes into account that the resident species contributes to the resistance with different strength and sign. Further, we correlated performance traits of species in their role as an invader and as a resident species to predict how the biotic resistance of these communities would develop over time. We found a positive correlation between performance traits: Some species have high introduction success, they make a large contribution to the resistance, and they cause extinctions when introduced but do not go extinct themselves when other species establishes, whereas other species are weak performers in these respects. Thus, the biotic resistance of these communities should grow stronger as non-native species accumulates. These results give us clues about what type of communities that should be most sensitive to further invasions, i.e., communities harboring species weak performers. 

My results show that the biotic resistance of communities is an important factor in determining invasibility of a community. They also show that methods for quantifying resistance must take into account how interactions are structured in nature. What determine the biotic resistance of a community is the type of interactions that the resident species have with the invader and not the species richness of the community.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2015. 26 p.
Keyword
biotic resistance, freshwater fish, introductions, invasions, invasion success, invasibility, invasiveness, species richness, saturation, species identity, weighted species richness
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-110251 (URN)978-91-7601-326-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-11-12, Naturvetarhuset, N320, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-10-22 Created: 2015-10-19 Last updated: 2015-11-13Bibliographically approved

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Henriksson, AnnaRydberg, CeciliaEnglund, Göran
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Department of Ecology and Environmental SciencesDepartment of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics
Ecology

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