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Field-based near infrared spectroscopy for analysis of Scandinavian Stone Age rock paintings
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. (Arcum)
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
2015 (English)In: Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, ISSN 0967-0335, E-ISSN 1751-6552, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 227-236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the early autumn of 2014 a field-based near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy study was carried out at Swedish and Norwegian StoneAge rock painting sites. This article presents results from one of them, namely Flatruet, Härjedalen, Sweden. Here, field-based NIRmeasurements were conducted using the 908–1676 nm wavelength range to gather 479 spectra: 427 of rock paintings and 52 of locallithology background. The whole dataset was analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and four principal components wereextracted explaining 98.5% (PC1), 1.4% (PC2), 0.06% (PC3) and 0.04% (PC4). The PCA results showed that there was a large spread inthe spectra of both background and red paint objects, but also some evidence of clustering could be seen where background and paintingscould be separated. An improvement in separation was achieved with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) usingthe background and paint as categorical variables. The most important components of the PLS-DA model showed a better separation inthe score plot. A small test set of 10 paint and 10 background samples showed that one of the paint samples and two of the backgroundsamples were misclassified. One conclusion is that there is a large spread in background due to varying precipitation of secondary ironoxides. It was also decided to look deeper into local models of painted elks and their pigments alone. This was done using local PCAmodels and soft independent modelling of class analogies showing that some painted elks could be separated from each other whileothers were quite similar, which is important for answering questions about origin, age and weathering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 23, no 4, p. 227-236
Keywords [en]
field-based NIR spectroscopy, rock art, chemometrics, archaeology
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
environmental archaeology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-110315DOI: 10.1255/jnirs.1172ISI: 000368401900004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-110315DiVA, id: diva2:862148
Projects
MOBIMAAvailable from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Carved Mountains and Moving Stones: applications of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Mineral Characterisation in Provenance Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carved Mountains and Moving Stones: applications of Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Mineral Characterisation in Provenance Studies
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The study of stone artefacts is a combination of anthropological archaeology and geology, rooted in analytical techniques for determining the materials’ composition, typological stylistic classification and interpretation of cultural patterns. In this thesis, the archaeology of materials is considered in the context of sites- and landscape transformation, economic history and development of techniques. Focus has been on applications of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for characterising minerals in different case studies. Interdisciplinary protocols are implemented in order to account for the various aspects of stone artefacts, merging geochemical investigation and digital documentation.

This thesis consists of two parts: an introductory text and five research publications. In the first paper, a NIR portable probe is tested to measure iron oxide-based pigments in rock paintings in Flatruet (Sweden). The study demonstrates that the probe is useful for characterising different sections of paint in-situ and pinpointing similarities and dissimilarities in the pigments used for the figures. The second and third papers are aimed at studying the use of raw materials for tool production in a Mesolithic settlement in Northern Sweden. In the second paper is shown that hyperspectral imaging helps characterise the mineral composition of a selected group of tools and the spectral signature of quartz, quartzite, and flint are examined. In the third paper, hyperspectral imaging-based classification is applied to the entire dataset of lithic tools and flakes collected during excavation of the site. The objects are divided into categories of raw materials according to their spectral features and the distribution is visualised on a 3D GIS platform. The fourth paper deals with the application of hyperspectral imaging, a field probe (MicroNIR) and portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), for in-situ characterisation of building materials on the inner wall of the fortified citadel of Carcassonne (France). The research shows how the combination of these analytical methods in conjunction with a stratigraphic study of the architecture helps to understand the use and re-use of materials in different construction phases. The last paper shows how an in-field NIR-probe may be used in landscape surveys for instant characterisations of different stone types. This study was carried out in the district of Montescaglioso, Southern Italy, to highlight patterns of use and distribution of artefacts made of local calcarenite (limestone) in the period between the 6th and 3rd century BC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2018. p. 91
Series
Archaeology and environment, ISSN 0281-5877 ; 31
Keywords
Raw materials, mineral characterization, material agency, Near Infrared spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence, multivariate statistics
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-154159 (URN)978-91-7601-993-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-01-25, S104, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation, MAW 2012.0136
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved

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Linderholm, JohanSciuto, Claudia

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