Pro-inflammatory S100A9 Protein as a Robust Biomarker Differentiating Early Stages of Cognitive Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease
2016 (English)In: ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ISSN 1948-7193, E-ISSN 1948-7193, Vol. 7, no 1, 34-39 p.Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Pro-inflammatory protein S100A9 was established as a biomarker of dementia progression and compared with others such as Aβ1-42 and tau-proteins. CSF samples from 104 stringently diagnosed individuals divided into five subgroups were analyzed, including nondemented controls, stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI), mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) patients. ELISA, dot-blotting, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used as research methods. The S100A9 and Aβ1-42 levels correlated with each other: their CSF content decreased already at the SMCI stage and declined further under MCI-AD, AD, and VaD conditions. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed involvement of both Aβ1-42 and S100A9 in the amyloid-neuroinflammatory cascade already during SMCI. Tau proteins were not yet altered in SMCI; however their contents increased during MCI-AD and AD, diagnosing later dementia stages. Thus, four biomarkers together, reflecting different underlying pathological causes, can accurately differentiate dementia progression and also distinguish AD from VaD.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 7, no 1, 34-39 p.
Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, cerebrospinal fluid, S100A9, Aβ1−42, biomarkers, amyloid, inflammation
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111351DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00265ISI: 000368567200006PubMedID: 26550994OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-111351DiVA: diva2:869183