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Assessment of Bilateral Thoracic Loading on the Near-Side Occupant Due to Occupant-to-Occupant Interaction in Vehicle Crash Tests
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Autoliv Research, Vårgårda, Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
2015 (English)In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, no Supplement 2, S217-S223 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: This study aims, by means of the WorldSID 50th percentile male, to evaluate thoracic loading and injury risk to the near-side occupant due to occupant-to-occupant interaction in combination with loading from an intruding structure.Method: Nine vehicle crash tests were performed with a 50th percentile WorldSID male dummy in the near-side (adjacent to the intruding structure) seat and a THOR or ES2 dummy in the far-side (opposite the intruding structure) seat. The near-side seated WorldSID was equipped with 6 + 6 IR-Traccs (LH and RH) in the thorax/abdomen enabling measurement of bilateral deflection. To differentiate deflection caused by the intrusion, and the deflection caused by the neighboring occupant, time history curves were analyzed. The crash tests were performed with different modern vehicles, equipped with thorax side airbags and inflatable curtains, ranging from a compact car to a large sedan, and in different loading conditions such as car-to-car, barrier, and pole tests. Lateral delta V based on vehicle tunnel acceleration and maximum residual intrusion at occupant position were used as a measurement of crash severity to compare injury measurements.Result: In the 9 vehicle crash tests, thoracic loading, induced by the intruding structure as well as from the far-side occupant, varied due to the size and structural performance of the car as well as the severity of the crash. Peak deflection on the thoracic outboard side occurred during the first 50ms of the event. Between 70 to 150ms loading induced by the neighboring occupant occurred and resulted in an inboard-side peak deflection and viscous criterion. In the tests where the target vehicle lateral delta V was below 30km/h and intrusion less than 200mm, deflections were low on both the outboard (20-40mm) and inboard side (10-15mm). At higher crash severities, delta V 35km/h and above as well as intrusions larger than 350mm, the inboard deflections (caused by interaction to the far-side occupant) were of the same magnitude or even higher (30-70mm) than the outboard deflections (30-50mm).Conclusion: A WorldSID 50th percentile male equipped with bilateral IR-Traccs can detect loading to the thorax from a neighboring occupant making injury risk assessment feasible for this type of loading. At crash severities resulting in a delta V above 35km/h and intrusions larger than 350mm, both the inboard deflection and VC resulted in high risks of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3+ injury, especially for a senior occupant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 16, no Supplement 2, S217-S223 p.
Keyword [en]
side impact, crash test, injury mechanisms, occupant-to-occupant interaction, WorldSID
National Category
Surgery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-110997DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2015.1061665ISI: 000362330800030PubMedID: 26436235OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-110997DiVA: diva2:871928
Available from: 2015-11-17 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2017-05-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characteristics of nearside car crashes: an integrated approach to side impact safety
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics of nearside car crashes: an integrated approach to side impact safety
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Approximately 1.25 million people globally are killed in traffic accidents yearly. To achieve the UN Global Goal of a 50% reduction of fatal and serious injuries in 2020 a safer infrastructure, as well as new safety technologies, will be needed. Side crashes represent 20% of all serious and 25 % of fatal injuries. The overall aim of this thesis is to provide guidelines for improved side impact protection. First, by characterizing nearside crashes and injury outcome, including injuries from the farside occupant, for non-senior and senior front seat occupants. Second, to determine whether the WorldSID dummy provides opportunities for improved in-crash occupant protection. And third, by relating in-crash occupant protection to pre-crash countermeasures, to explore a holistic approach for side crashes using the integrated safety chain from safe driving to crash.

Methods: NASS/CDS data for both older and modern vehicles was used to provide exposure, incidence, and risk for fatal injury as well as detailed injury distribution and crash characteristics. The WorldSID dummy was compared to Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in impactor tests at high and low severities to demonstrate the possibilities of this tool. Crash tests were performed to evaluate WorldSID crash test dummy assessments of injuries found in the NASS/CDS data. The integrated safety chain was used to demonstrate how to evaluate occupant protection in side crashes from a larger perspective, involving infrastructure and Automated Emergency Braking.

Result: Most side crashes occur at intersections. The head, thorax, and pelvis are the most frequently injured body regions, and seniors have a higher risk for rib fractures compared to non-seniors. The WorldSID dummy response was similar to the PMHS response at the higher impact speed, but not at the lower. In conjunction with improved airbags infrastructural change, and the use of Automated Emergency Braking, can effectively reduce the number of fatalities and injured occupants in side impacts.

Conclusion: Future focus for side impact protection should be on intersection crashes, improved occupant protection for senior occupants, and protection for and from the farside occupant, reducing injury risk to the head, thorax, and pelvis. The WorldSID dummy has the ability to reproduce humanlike responses in lateral and oblique impacts. However, at a low crash severity, chest deflection could be underestimated, which must be taken into consideration when evaluating, for example, pre-crash inflated side airbags. Analyzing nearside crashes using the integrated safety chain shows that speed management by means of roundabouts is an efficient countermeasure reducing the number of injurious crashes, as well as reducing variations in crash severity. In combination with an Automated Emergency Braking a large part of side crashes could be avoided or crash severity mitigated. Rather than developing structures and airbags for high-speed crashes, it is important to consider alternative countermeasures. Hence the need for an integrated approach to side impacts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016. 58 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1855
Keyword
side impact, WorldSID, thorax, injuries, side airbag, sidokollision, WorldSID, thorax, injuries, side airbag
National Category
Surgery
Research subject
biomechanics; Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-126985 (URN)978-91-7601-587-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-11, NUS 1D - Tandläkarhögskolan, Hörsal D, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-10-25 Created: 2016-10-25 Last updated: 2016-11-04Bibliographically approved

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