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Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with nutrition, travelling and clothing habits in an immigrant population in Northern Sweden.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
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2016 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 70, no 3, 373-379 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To study prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in immigrants from Africa and the Middle East living in Umeå, Sweden.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional population based.

SETTING: Umeå, Sweden (63° N).

SUBJECTS/METHODS: Immigrants aged 25-65 years from nine countries in Africa or the Middle East (n=1306) were invited. A total of 111 men and 106 women (16.5%) completed the study. S-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was measured with HPLC. Anthropometry, medical, socioeconomic and lifestyle data were registered.

RESULTS: Vitamin D status was insufficient or deficient in 73% of the participants. Specifically, 12% had vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D3<25 nmol/l), and only 3.7% had optimal vitamin D status (25(OH)D3 75-125 nmol/l). Mean 25(OH)D3 level was 41.0 nmol/l (±16.6) with no difference between sexes. Levels of 25(OH)D3 were lower (P=0.030) and vitamin D deficiency was twice as common in immigrants from Africa compared with those from the Middle East. In the multiple regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with low fatty fish intake (OR 4.31, 95% CI 1.61-11.55), not travelling abroad (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.18-11.96) and wearing long-sleeved clothes in summer (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.09-9.12).

CONCLUSIONS: The majority of immigrants from Africa and the Middle East who live in northern Sweden have vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Our results are consistent with sun exposure and a diet with high intake of fatty fish being most important in avoiding vitamin D deficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 70, no 3, 373-379 p.
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Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
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URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112102DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.176ISI: 000371667700014PubMedID: 26508457OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-112102DiVA: diva2:875829
Available from: 2015-12-02 Created: 2015-12-02 Last updated: 2016-05-23Bibliographically approved

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Granlund, LenaRamnemark, AnnaAndersson, ChristerLindkvist, MarieFhärm, EvaNorberg, Margareta
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European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

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