Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with nutrition, travelling and clothing habits in an immigrant population in Northern Sweden.
2016 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 70, no 3, 373-379 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
OBJECTIVES: To study prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in immigrants from Africa and the Middle East living in Umeå, Sweden.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional population based.
SETTING: Umeå, Sweden (63° N).
SUBJECTS/METHODS: Immigrants aged 25-65 years from nine countries in Africa or the Middle East (n=1306) were invited. A total of 111 men and 106 women (16.5%) completed the study. S-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was measured with HPLC. Anthropometry, medical, socioeconomic and lifestyle data were registered.
RESULTS: Vitamin D status was insufficient or deficient in 73% of the participants. Specifically, 12% had vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D3<25 nmol/l), and only 3.7% had optimal vitamin D status (25(OH)D3 75-125 nmol/l). Mean 25(OH)D3 level was 41.0 nmol/l (±16.6) with no difference between sexes. Levels of 25(OH)D3 were lower (P=0.030) and vitamin D deficiency was twice as common in immigrants from Africa compared with those from the Middle East. In the multiple regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with low fatty fish intake (OR 4.31, 95% CI 1.61-11.55), not travelling abroad (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.18-11.96) and wearing long-sleeved clothes in summer (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.09-9.12).
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of immigrants from Africa and the Middle East who live in northern Sweden have vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Our results are consistent with sun exposure and a diet with high intake of fatty fish being most important in avoiding vitamin D deficiency.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 70, no 3, 373-379 p.
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112102DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2015.176ISI: 000371667700014PubMedID: 26508457OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-112102DiVA: diva2:875829