2015 (English)In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: Volume II: Specific metals / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg, Bruce A. Fowler, Monica Nordberg, Academic Press, 2015, 4, 911-967 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Inorganic lead is the most extensively studied toxic agent. In addition to occupational exposure, there is widespread exposure in the general environment, although this has decreased dramatically after the ban of lead addition to gasoline. Toxic effects may occur in both the central and peripheral nervous systems; the blood (including inhibition of heme synthesis, which also affects all other cells); the kidney; the cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems; the gastrointestinal tract; and female and male reproduction. Lead passes into the placenta. Slight (but adverse) effects on the mental development of infants and children have repeatedly been reported at a mean blood lead concentration (B-Pb) of ≤ 0.25 μmol/L, without obvious threshold. Lead causes an increase in blood pressure at a mean B-Pb of ≤ 0.5 μmol/L. Lead is carcinogenic in animal experiments, but there is only limited evidence for carcinogenicity in humans. The organolead compounds tetraethyl- and tetramethyllead, earlier used in enormous quantities in leaded gasoline, are easily absorbed through inhalation and through the skin, and may cause acute encephalopathia.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2015, 4. 911-967 p.
lead, environment, toxicity, epidemiology, nervous system, fetus, CNS, IQ, cardiovascular, blood pressure, public health
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112392DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59453-2.00043-3ISBN: 9780123982933OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-112392DiVA: diva2:877370